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Sandy Zabell: Alan Turing and the Applications of Probability to Cryptography (Rutgers)
 
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In the years before World War II Bayesian statistics went into eclipse, a casualty of the combined attacks of statisticians such as R. A. Fisher and Jerzy Neyman. During the war itself, however, the brilliant but statistical naif Alan Turing developed de novo a Bayesian approach to cryptananalysis which he then applied to good effect against a number of German encryption systems. The year 2012 was the centenary of the birth of Alan Turing, and as part of the celebrations the British authorities released materials casting light on Turing's Bayesian approach. In this talk I discuss how Turing's Bayesian view of inductive inference was reflected in his approach to cryptanalysis, and give an example where his Bayesian methods proved more effective than the orthodox ones more commonly used. I will conclude by discussing the curious career of I. J. Good, initially one of Turing's assistants at Bletchley Park. Good became one of the most influential advocates for Bayesian statistics after the war, although he hid the reasons for his belief in their efficacy for many decades due to their classified origins.
Views: 347 Harry Crane
Winter School on Cryptography: Cryptanalysis of GGH and NTRU Signatures - Oded Regev
 
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Winter School on Lattice-Based Cryptography and Applications, which took place at Bar-Ilan University between february 19 - 22. The event's program: http://crypto.biu.ac.il/winterschool2012/ Dept. of Computer Science: http://www.cs.biu.ac.il/ Bar-Ilan University: http://www1.biu.ac.il/indexE.php
Views: 1716 barilanuniversity
Network Security - CryptoAnalysis of Monoalphabetic Substitution Cipher
 
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Fundamentals of Computer Network Security This specialization in intended for IT professionals, computer programmers, managers, IT security professionals who like to move up ladder, who are seeking to develop network system security skills. Through four courses, we will cover the Design and Analyze Secure Networked Systems, Develop Secure Programs with Basic Cryptography and Crypto API, Hacking and Patching Web Applications, Perform Penetration Testing, and Secure Networked Systems with Firewall and IDS, which will prepare you to perform tasks as Cyber Security Engineer, IT Security Analyst, and Cyber Security Analyst. course 2 Basic Cryptography and Programming with Crypto API: About this course: In this MOOC, we will learn the basic concepts and principles of cryptography, apply basic cryptoanalysis to decrypt messages encrypted with mono-alphabetic substitution cipher, and discuss the strongest encryption technique of the one-time-pad and related quantum key distribution systems. We will also learn the efficient symmetric key cryptography algorithms for encrypting data, discuss the DES and AES standards, study the criteria for selecting AES standard, present the block cipher operating modes and discuss how they can prevent and detect the block swapping attacks, and examine how to defend against replay attacks. We will learn the Diffie-Hellman Symmetric Key Exchange Protocol to generate a symmetric key for two parties to communicate over insecure channel. We will learn the modular arithmetic and the Euler Totient Theorem to appreciate the RSA Asymmetric Crypto Algorithm, and use OpenSSL utility to realize the basic operations of RSA Crypto Algorithm. Armed with these knowledge, we learn how to use PHP Crypto API to write secure programs for encrypting and decrypting documents and for signing and verify documents. We then apply these techniques to enhance the registration process of a web site which ensures the account created is actually requested by the owner of the email account. Module 1 - Basic Cryptography In this module we learn the basic concepts and principles of crytography, introduce the basic concept of cryptoanalysis using mono-alphabetic substitution cipher as an example, and discuss the one-time-pad and quantum key distribution concepts. Learning Objectives • Compose secure program with Crypto API for encryption, authentication, and integrity checking • Understand terminologies of basic cryptography • Understand Kerchhoff Principle • Apply cryptoanalysis techniques on mono-alphabetic ciphers • Explain why one time pad is strongest and understand how quantum key can be distributed
Views: 234 intrigano
The future of cryptography
 
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Invited talk by Bart Preneel, Eurocrypt 2016.
Views: 1471 TheIACR
Cryptanalysis of Classical Ciphers
 
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Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 12723 nptelhrd
Application of Elliptic Curves to Cryptography
 
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Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 10138 nptelhrd
Post Snowden Cryptography or Who Holds Your Keys? - Bart Preneel
 
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Post-Snowden cryptography, by Bart Preneel. This lecture presents an overview of the Snowden revelations and the impact on our understanding of the security of our networks and systems. In particular, it discusses the known ways in which sophisticated attackers can bypass or undermine cryptography. We also speculate on how three-letter agencies could be breaking most encryption on the Internet. We relate this to the latest developments in cryptanalysis and discuss which cryptographic algorithms and implementations to select to stay protected. Learning objectives + Understand how sophisticated opponents can undermine cryptographic protection + Understand how to maximize your chances to resist sophisticated opponents using cryptographic techniques This lecture was delivered by Bart Preneel at SecAppDev 2014 in Leuven, Belgium. Professor Bart Preneel of KU Leuven heads the COSIC (COmputer Security and Industrial Cryptography) research group. His main research area is information security with a focus on cryptographic algorithms and protocols as well as their applications to both computer and network security, and mobile communications. He teaches cryptology, network security and coding theory at the KU Leuven and was visiting professor at the Ruhr Universitaet Bochum (Germany), the T.U.Graz (Austria), the University of Bergen (Norway), and the Universiteit Gent (Belgium). In '93-'94 he was a research fellow at the University of California at Berkeley. He has taught intensive courses around the world. He undertakes industrial consulting (Mastercard International, S.W.I.F.T., Proton World International,...), and participates in the work of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC27/WG2. Professor Preneel is Vice President of the International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR) and co-founder and chairman of LSEC vzw (Leuven Security Excellence Consortium).
Views: 1818 secappdev.org
Real Time Cryptanalysis of Bluetooth Encryption with Con ...
 
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Talk at crypto 2013. Authors: Bin Zhang 0003, Chao Xu, Dengguo Feng
Views: 304 TheIACR
Daniele Micciancio - Cryptography developments
 
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Daniele Micciancio is a professor of computer science at the University of California, San Diego. As a leader in the field of lattice based cryptography and computational complexity, his research has focused heavily on fully homomorphic encryption and its challenges. Micciancio was visiting IQC for PQCrypto 2014, the 6th international conference on post-quantum cryptography (https://pqcrypto2014.uwaterloo.ca/). Find out more about IQC! Website - https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-quantum-computing/ Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC Twitter - https://twitter.com/QuantumIQC Micciancio explains fully homomorphic encryption and how it relates to his group work on latice algorithms.
[WHIBOX 2016] Towards secure whitebox cryptography - Andrey Bogdanov
 
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Whitebox cryptography aims to provide security for cryptographic algorithms in an untrusted environment where the adversary has full access to their implementation. This setting poses a fundamental challenge to security designers. Indeed, most whitebox solutions published to date have been practically broken. This talk will be three-fold. First, we will show new attacks on existing whitebox schemes which use techniques from symmetric-key cryptanalysis such as integral, differential and linear attacks. Second, we will give our novel approach to guaranteeing key extraction and decomposition security of whitebox encryption by essentially reducing it to the classical security of block ciphers such as AES in the standard black box setting. Next, we will present several families of whitebox schemes together with rigorous security analysis, detailed implementation study, and real-world applications.
Views: 302 ECRYPT
what is cryptography and network security
 
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It is a mono-alphabetic cipher wherein each letter of the plaintext is substituted by another letter to form the ciphertext. It is a simplest form of substitution cipher scheme Modern cryptography uses sophisticated mathematical equations (algorithms) and secret keys to encrypt and decrypt data. Today, cryptography is used to provide secrecy and integrity to our data, and both authentication and anonymity to our communications. Network security attacks and services https://youtu.be/-ZHWhaLInik What is network security explained in minutes https://youtu.be/vqavFou2oxk Predefined functions in PHP https://youtu.be/ewmWqm2H-AA Cryptography or cryptology (from Greek κρυπτός kryptós, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "to write", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively[1]) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries.[2] More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages;[3] various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation[4] are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, and physics. Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, and military communications. Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the original information only with intended recipients, thereby precluding unwanted persons from doing the same. The cryptography literature often uses the name Alice ("A") for the sender, Bob ("B") for the intended recipient, and Eve ("eavesdropper") for the adversary.[5] Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World War I and the advent of computers in World War II, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread. Modern cryptography is heavily based on mathematical theory and computer science practice; cryptographic algorithms are designed around computational hardness assumptions, making such algorithms hard to break in practice by any adversary. It is theoretically possible to break such a system, but it is infeasible to do so by any known practical means. These schemes are therefore termed computationally secure; theoretical advances, e.g., improvements in integer factorization algorithms, and faster computing technology require these solutions to be continually adapted. There exist information-theoretically secure schemes that probably cannot be broken even with unlimited computing power—an example is the one-time pad—but these schemes are more difficult to implement than the best theoretically breakable but computationally secure mechanisms. The growth of cryptographic technology has raised a number of legal issues in the information age. Cryptography's potential for use as a tool for espionage and sedition has led many governments to classify it as a weapon and to limit or even prohibit its use and export.[6] In some jurisdictions where the use of cryptography is legal, laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation.[7][8] Cryptography also plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.[9] -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- How to install wordpress in xampp step by step https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YdwMhXX-FLE How to create menu and submenu in wordpress https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PACC3farNPY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8kG3JTbGAbw How to install wordpress theme with demo data free How to change footer copyright in wordpress https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3oIkPWYXyyQ How to change footer widget in wordpress https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1HbnBbZX9tA How to backup & restore your wordpress website in 3 minutes free 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pSr5w4U36c8 How to use the revolution slider plugin with Button Link - full tutorial 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KMBFxOlObx4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5jbofGMOHM How to add new user role in wordpress How To Add YouTube Video To Your WordPress Website 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jCWQ7oA2bBA How to add contact form 7 in wordpress page https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E9U27FOPNyo How to change favicon in wordpress theme https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uvczOIqdVYk How to use tubebuddy on youtube - 2018 full tutorial https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1zpn3sT-2o How to add additional css in wordpress 2018 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2L7lHf_0C-E -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 238 The Coding Bus
Chris Peikert - Lattice Cryptography for the Internet
 
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Chris Peikert of Georgia Institute of Technology presented a talk titled: Lattice cryptography for the internet at the 2014 PQCrypto conference in October, 2014. Abstract: In recent years, lattice-based cryptography has been recognized for its many attractive properties, such as strong provable security guarantees and apparent resistance to quantum attacks, flexibility for realizing powerful tools like fully homomorphic encryption, and high asymptotic efficiency. Indeed, several works have demonstrated that for basic tasks like encryption and authentication, lattice-based primitives can have performance competitive with (or even surpassing) those based on classical mechanisms like RSA or Diffie-Hellman. However, there still has been relatively little work on developing lattice cryptography for deployment in real-world cryptosystems and protocols. In this work, we take a step toward that goal, by giving efficient and practical lattice-based protocols for key transport, encryption, and authenticated key exchange that are suitable as "drop-in" components for proposed Internet standards and other open protocols. The security of all our proposals is provable based (sometimes in the random-oracle model) on the well-studied "leaning with errors over rings" problem, and hence on the conjectured worst-case hardness of problems on ideal lattices (against quantum algorithms). One of our main technical innovations (which may be of independent interest) is a simple, low-bandwidth reconciliation technique that allows two parties who "approximately agree" on a secret value to reach exact agreement, a setting common to essentially all lattice-bases encryption schemes. Our technique reduces the ciphertext length of prior (already compact) encryption schemes nearly twofold, at essentially no cost. PQCrypto 2014 Book: http://www.springer.com/computer/security+and+cryptology/book/978-3-319-11658-7 Workshop: https://pqcrypto2014.uwaterloo.ca/ Find out more about IQC! Website - https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-qu... Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC Twitter - https://twitter.com/QuantumIQC
CISSP CBK Overview - Cryptography
 
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CISSP CBK Cryptography
Views: 1293 Become Cissp
Cryptography, Freedom, Democracy - How Basic Science Affects Everyone
 
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To most people, research in basic science seems irrelevant, and consequently, citizens, legislators, government funding agencies, and corporations are disinclined to support it. Nevertheless, basic science can have deep impacts on our lives. This talk examines two developments in basic science in the Twentieth Century. The first of them, Albert Einstein's work in 1905, changed the field of physics, and the course of history. The second, the invention of public-key cryptography in 1975, has important consequences for privacy, freedom, and democracy. Many of mankind's discoveries have potential for both good and bad. The talk concludes with a discussion of some recent uses of technology that pose the very serious risk of our complete loss of privacy, freedom, and democracy.
Views: 278 Jason Hill
Cryptographic Hash Functions
 
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Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 12462 nptelhrd
14. SSL and HTTPS
 
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MIT 6.858 Computer Systems Security, Fall 2014 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-858F14 Instructor: Nickolai Zeldovich In this lecture, Professor Zeldovich discusses how to cryptographically protect network communications, as well as how to integrate cryptographic protection of network traffic into the web security model. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 66138 MIT OpenCourseWare
Stanford cybersecurity expert: Dan Boneh
 
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Professor Dan Boneh, head of the applied cryptography group in the Computer Science Department, discusses the importance of making encryption easier to use as computer security breaches become easier to monetize. Professor Boneh's research focuses on applications of cryptography to computer security, and his work includes cryptosystems with novel properties, web security, security for mobile devices, digital copyright protection, and cryptanalysis. He is the author of more than 100 publications in the field and a recipient of the Packard Award, the Alfred P. Sloan Award and the RSA award in mathematics.
Views: 4539 Stanford
NETWORK SECURITY - HMAC ALGORITHM
 
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www.youtube.com/c/sundeepsaradhi
IASG Meeting 1/30/18 - Cryptography
 
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Alex Scheel gives a talk about cryptography and his experiences related to this topic this week: Solving systems of boolean equations is one of the NP-Complete problems in Computer Science. Traditionally thought intractable, the past 20 years of SAT solving competitions has resulted in the development of many fast solvers which have seen adoption by industry. Starting in the early 2000s, the field of logical cryptanalysis was developed by F. Massacci and detailed the application of SAT solvers to cryptanalysis. However, much of the early work until 2010 used cryptography to generate benchmarks for SAT solvers instead of using them for cryptanalysis. In this talk, we present new techniques for horizontally-scalable logical cryptanalysis of hash functions. These techniques allow us to study the structure inherent to the function and easily probe them for weaknesses, giving implications for real-world applications.
Unboxing The White-Box: Practical Attacks Against Obfuscated Ciphers
 
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by Eloi Sanfelix & Job de Haas & Cristofaro Mune White-Box Cryptography (WBC) aims to provide software implementations of cryptographic algorithms that are resistant against an attacker with full access to the internals. Therefore, the key must remain secure even if the attacker is able to inspect and modify the execution of the cryptographic algorithm. This is often referred to as "security in the White-Box context." In a vanilla implementation of a cryptographic algorithm, access to intermediate results directly leads to extraction of the key. To achieve security in the white-box context, data encoding schemes and strong obfuscation are typically applied. This type of implementation is commonly seen in DRM systems, and is currently gaining momentum in the mobile payment market. Assessing the security of WBC implementations is a challenge both for evaluators and for WBC designers, as it often requires a powerful mix of reverse engineering and applied cryptanalysis skills. In this presentation, we show how attacks typically used to attack hardware cryptosystems can be ported to the white-box settings. We will introduce generic yet practical attacks on WBC implementations of the TDES and AES ciphers. Additionally, we will analyze the requirements for each attack and discuss potential countermeasures. We have applied these attacks to recover cryptographic keys from commercial as well as academic implementations. During the presentation, we will demonstrate several attacks on open source WBC implementations using custom tools. If you are tasked with evaluating the attack resistance of a WBC-based solution, this presentation will provide a better understanding of what White-Box Cryptography is and how to evaluate its robustness against different key extraction attacks. If you are a WBC designer, you will obtain a better understanding of what the most common weak points of such schemes are. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating WBC implementations with respect to these generic attacks in order to provide correct judgment about their level of security.
Views: 2248 Black Hat
Introduction - Applied Cryptography
 
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This video is part of an online course, Applied Cryptography. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/cs387.
Views: 958 Udacity
Cryptography more attacks on block ciphers
 
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Cryptography more attacks on block ciphers To get certificate subscribe: https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto Playlist URL: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL2jykFOD1AWYosqucluZghEVjUkopdD1e About this course: Cryptography is an indispensable tool for protecting information in computer systems. In this course you will learn the inner workings of cryptographic systems and how to correctly use them in real-world applications. The course begins with a detailed discussion of how two parties who have a shared secret key can communicate securely when a powerful adversary eavesdrops and tampers with traffic. We will examine many deployed protocols and analyze mistakes in existing systems. The second half of the course discusses public-key techniques that let two parties generate a shared secret key.
Views: 166 intrigano
DEFCON 13: The Next Generation of Cryptanalytic Hardware
 
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Speaker: The Next Generation of Cryptanalytic Hardware David Hulton, Dachb0den Labs Encryption is simply the act of obfuscating something to the point that it would take too much time or money for an attacker to recover it. Many algorithms have time after time failed due to Moore's law or large budgets or resources (e.g. distributed.net). There have been many articles published on cracking crypto using specialized hardware, but many were never fully regarded as being practical attacks. Slowly FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) have become affordable to consumers and advanced enough to implement some of the conventional software attacks extremely efficiently in hardware. The result is performance up to hundreds of times faster than a modern PC. This presentation will provide a walk through on how FPGAs work, review their past applications with crypto cracking, present basic tips and pointers to developing a fast and efficient crypto cracking design, discuss overclocking FPGAs, and analyze the future growth of FPGA hardware and it's relation to current crypto ciphers. Then, a new open source DES cracking engine will be released and demonstrated which is able to crack windows Lanman and NTLM passwords at a rate over 600,000,000 crypts per second on a single low-cost Virtex-4 LX25 FPGA and provide brute-force performance comparable to lookups on a hard-drive based rainbowtable attack. For more information visit: http://bit.ly/defcon13_information To download the video visit: http://bit.ly/defcon13_videos
Views: 1176 Christiaan008
What is XSL ATTACK? What does XSL ATTACK mean? XSL ATTACK meaning, definition & explanation
 
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What is XSL ATTACK? What does XSL ATTACK mean? XSL ATTACK meaning - XSL ATTACK definition - XSL ATTACK explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ In cryptography, the eXtended Sparse Linearization (XSL) attack is a method of cryptanalysis for block ciphers. The attack was first published in 2002 by researchers Nicolas Courtois and Josef Pieprzyk. It has caused some controversy as it was claimed to have the potential to break the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher, also known as Rijndael, faster than an exhaustive search. Since AES is already widely used in commerce and government for the transmission of secret information, finding a technique that can shorten the amount of time it takes to retrieve the secret message without having the key could have wide implications. The method has a high work-factor, which unless lessened, means the technique does not reduce the effort to break AES in comparison to an exhaustive search. Therefore, it does not affect the real-world security of block ciphers in the near future. Nonetheless, the attack has caused some experts to express greater unease at the algebraic simplicity of the current AES. In overview, the XSL attack relies on first analyzing the internals of a cipher and deriving a system of quadratic simultaneous equations. These systems of equations are typically very large, for example 8,000 equations with 1,600 variables for the 128-bit AES. Several methods for solving such systems are known. In the XSL attack, a specialized algorithm, termed eXtended Sparse Linearization, is then applied to solve these equations and recover the key. The attack is notable for requiring only a handful of known plaintexts to perform; previous methods of cryptanalysis, such as linear and differential cryptanalysis, often require unrealistically large numbers of known or chosen plaintexts. Solving multivariate quadratic equations (MQ) over a finite set of numbers is an NP-hard problem (in the general case) with several applications in cryptography. The XSL attack requires an efficient algorithm for tackling MQ. In 1999, Kipnis and Shamir showed that a particular public key algorithm, known as the Hidden Field Equations scheme (HFE), could be reduced to an overdetermined system of quadratic equations (more equations than unknowns). One technique for solving such systems is linearization, which involves replacing each quadratic term with an independent variable and solving the resultant linear system using an algorithm such as Gaussian elimination. To succeed, linearization requires enough linearly independent equations (approximately as many as the number of terms). However, for the cryptanalysis of HFE there were too few equations, so Kipnis and Shamir proposed re-linearization, a technique where extra non-linear equations are added after linearization, and the resultant system is solved by a second application of linearization. Re-linearization proved general enough to be applicable to other schemes. In 2000, Courtois et al. proposed an improved algorithm for MQ known as XL (for eXtended Linearization), which increases the number of equations by multiplying them with all monomials of a certain degree. Complexity estimates showed that the XL attack would not work against the equations derived from block ciphers such as AES. However, the systems of equations produced had a special structure, and the XSL algorithm was developed as a refinement of XL which could take advantage of this structure. In XSL, the equations are multiplied only by carefully selected monomials, and several variants have been proposed. Research into the efficiency of XL and its derivative algorithms remains ongoing (Yang and Chen, 2004). Courtois and Pieprzyk (2002) observed that AES (Rijndael) and partially also Serpent could be expressed as a system of quadratic equations. The variables represent not just the plaintext, ciphertext and key bits, but also various intermediate values within the algorithm. The S-box of AES appears to be especially vulnerable to this type of analysis, as it is based on the algebraically simple inverse function. ...
Views: 281 The Audiopedia
Overview on Modern Cryptography
 
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Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 34975 nptelhrd
Network Security - Kerckhoff's Principle
 
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Fundamentals of Computer Network Security This specialization in intended for IT professionals, computer programmers, managers, IT security professionals who like to move up ladder, who are seeking to develop network system security skills. Through four courses, we will cover the Design and Analyze Secure Networked Systems, Develop Secure Programs with Basic Cryptography and Crypto API, Hacking and Patching Web Applications, Perform Penetration Testing, and Secure Networked Systems with Firewall and IDS, which will prepare you to perform tasks as Cyber Security Engineer, IT Security Analyst, and Cyber Security Analyst. course 2 Basic Cryptography and Programming with Crypto API: About this course: In this MOOC, we will learn the basic concepts and principles of cryptography, apply basic cryptoanalysis to decrypt messages encrypted with mono-alphabetic substitution cipher, and discuss the strongest encryption technique of the one-time-pad and related quantum key distribution systems. We will also learn the efficient symmetric key cryptography algorithms for encrypting data, discuss the DES and AES standards, study the criteria for selecting AES standard, present the block cipher operating modes and discuss how they can prevent and detect the block swapping attacks, and examine how to defend against replay attacks. We will learn the Diffie-Hellman Symmetric Key Exchange Protocol to generate a symmetric key for two parties to communicate over insecure channel. We will learn the modular arithmetic and the Euler Totient Theorem to appreciate the RSA Asymmetric Crypto Algorithm, and use OpenSSL utility to realize the basic operations of RSA Crypto Algorithm. Armed with these knowledge, we learn how to use PHP Crypto API to write secure programs for encrypting and decrypting documents and for signing and verify documents. We then apply these techniques to enhance the registration process of a web site which ensures the account created is actually requested by the owner of the email account. Module 1 - Basic Cryptography In this module we learn the basic concepts and principles of crytography, introduce the basic concept of cryptoanalysis using mono-alphabetic substitution cipher as an example, and discuss the one-time-pad and quantum key distribution concepts. Learning Objectives • Compose secure program with Crypto API for encryption, authentication, and integrity checking • Understand terminologies of basic cryptography • Understand Kerchhoff Principle • Apply cryptoanalysis techniques on mono-alphabetic ciphers • Explain why one time pad is strongest and understand how quantum key can be distributed
Views: 354 intrigano
Symmetric Key Ciphers
 
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Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 17779 nptelhrd
Karate(1983)How Indian Intelligence works- Cryptanalysis - Roja (1992)
 
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Eldridge_Odom Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information that is normally required to do so. Typically, this involves knowing how the system works and finding a secret key. In non-technical language, this is the practice of codebreaking or cracking the code, although these phrases also have a specialised technical meaning . Even though the goal has been the same, the methods and techniques of cryptanalysis have changed drastically through the history of cryptography, adapting to increasing cryptographic complexity, ranging from the pen-and-paper methods of the past, through machines like Bombes and Colossus computers in World War II, to the computer-based schemes of the present. The results of cryptanalysis have also changed — it is no longer possible to have unlimited success in codebreaking, and there is a hierarchical classification of what constitutes an attack. In the mid-1970s, a new class of cryptography was introduced: asymmetric cryptography. Methods for breaking these cryptosystems are typically radically different from before, and usually involve solving carefully constructed problems in pure mathematics, the best-known being integer factorization. In practice, frequency analysis relies as much on linguistic knowledge as it does on statistics, but as ciphers became more complex, mathematics became more important in cryptanalysis. This change was particularly evident before and during World War II, where efforts to crack Axis ciphers required new levels of mathematical sophistication. Moreover, automation was first applied to cryptanalysis in that era with the Polish Bomba device, the British Bombe development of it, the use of punched card equipment, and in the Colossus computers — the first electronic digital computers to be controlled by a program. Successful cryptanalysis has undoubtedly influenced history; the ability to read the presumed-secret thoughts and plans of others can be a decisive advantage. For example, in England in 1587, Mary, Queen of Scots was tried and executed for treason for her involvement in three plots to assassinate Elizabeth I of England which were known about because her coded correspondence with fellow conspirators had been deciphered by Thomas Phelippes; in World War I, the breaking of the Zimmermann Telegram was instrumental in bringing the United States into the war; in World War II, the cryptanalysis of the German ciphers — including the Enigma machine and the Lorenz cipher — has been credited with everything between shortening the end of the European war by a few months to determining the eventual result (see Ultra). The United States also benefited from the cryptanalysis of the Japanese Purple code (see Magic). Governments have long recognized the potential benefits of cryptanalysis for intelligence, both military and diplomatic, and established dedicated organizations devoted to breaking the codes and ciphers of other nations, for example, GCHQ and the NSA, organizations which are still very active today. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptanalysis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_rupee India was one of the earliest issuers of coins (circa 6th century BC). The first "rupee" is believed to have been introduced by Sher Shah Suri (1486--1545), based on a ratio of 40 copper pieces (paisa) per rupee. Among the earliest issues of paper rupees were those by the Bank of Hindustan (1770--1832), the General Bank of Bengal and Bihar (1773--75, established by Warren Hastings) and the Bengal Bank (1784--91), amongst others. Historically, the rupee, derived from the Sanskrit word raupya, which means silver, was a silver coin. This had severe consequences in the nineteenth century, when the strongest economies in the world were on the gold standard. The discovery of vast quantities of silver in the U.S. and various European colonies resulted in a decline in the relative value of silver to gold. Suddenly the standard currency of India could not buy as much from the outside world. This event was known as "the fall of the rupee". Currency notes are printed at the Currency Note Press, Nashik, Bank Note Press, Dewas, Bharatiya Note Mudra Nigam (P) Limited presses at Salboni and Mysore and at the Watermark Paper Manufacturing Mill, Hoshangabad. The current series of banknotes, which began in 1996, is called the Mahatma Gandhi series. At present, banknotes are issued in the denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000. The Zero rupee note is not an official government issue but a symbol of protest and it is printed and distributed by an NGO in India. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roja
BSides DC 2016 - Tales from the Crypt...(analyst)
 
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As a certified Cryptanalyst for the National Security Agency, the speaker was classically trained in manual cryptography, but also pioneered some of the first computer-based cryptographic systems produced by the agency. Topics discussed will include applications of classic cryptography including one-time pads and various cipher methods to machine-based systems (such as the Enigma) and ultimately to modern computer-based algorithms such as public key cryptography. Understanding the history and evolution of cryptography is essential for applying modern cryptographic solutions to solve today’s information security problems, particularly in understanding the residual risks, the shifting attack strategies, and the inherent weaknesses in the implementation or fielding of even the best cryptosystems and solutions. Jeff Man (Security Advocate) Jeff has over 30 years of experience working in all aspects of computer, network, and information security, including risk management, vulnerability analysis, compliance assessment, forensic analysis and penetration testing. Earlier in his career, Jeff held security research, management and product development roles with NSA, the DoD and private-sector enterprises. For the past twenty years, Jeff has served as a pen tester, security architect, consultant, QSA, and PCI subject matter expert, providing consulting and advisory services to many of the nation's best known brands. Thanks to our video sponsors Antietam Technologies http://antietamtechnologies.com ClearedJobs.Net http://www.clearedjobs.net CyberSecJobs.Com http://www.cybersecjobs.com
Views: 232 BSides DC
UAV-to-Basestation Encryption with Defense-grade FPGAs
 
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Sr. Defense Architect Jim Anderson shows how Xilinx defense-grade Virtex FPGAs enable the highest level of information assurance with Type-1 Single-chip Cryptography in a UAV application.
Views: 1696 XilinxInc
Daniele Micciancio - Lattice-based public-key cryptography #2
 
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Daniele Micciancio of the University of California, San Diego presented an invited talk on lattice-based public key cryptography at the 2014 PQCrypto summer school in October, 2014. This is part 2 of the talk. PQCrypto Summer School: https://pqcrypto2014.uwaterloo.ca/summer-school/ Find out more about IQC! Website - https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-qu... Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC Twitter - https://twitter.com/QuantumIQC
Eliminating Timing Side-channels. A Tutorial.  [ShmooCon 2015]
 
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Peter Schwabe The traditional model of an attacker against a cryptographic primitive sees (and potentially controls) inputs and outputs of the computation. Side-channel attacks go beyond this model. The attacker now also sees some "leakage" of the internal state of the cryptographic computation. One class of leakage is timing: If the time taken by a computation depends on secret data, the attacker can measure time and obtain information about this secret data. This is not just a theoretical threat as illustrated, for example, by a 2006 attack by Osvik, Shamir, and Tromer who used a timing attack to recover the AES-256 key used in Linux hard-disk encryption in just 65 ms. A more recent example is the Lucky 13 attack against almost all implementations of AES-CBC in TLS libraries. The timing side channel is different than other side channels (such as power consumption or electromagnetic radiation) because it can be exploited remotely and without any specialized hardware or manual interaction. It is also different because it is now well understood how to fully eliminate timing leakage. This talk is a tutorial on how to write constant-time software, i.e., software that does not leak any secret information through timing. Peter Schwabe is a researcher in applied cryptography working at Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands. He is mainly working on secure and efficient software implementations of cryptography and occasionally cryptanalysis. Examples of what he's been working on includes speed-record-setting timing-attack protected software for AES-CTR and AES-GCM, the Ed25519 signature scheme, and recently the formal verification of a hand-optimized assembly implementation of Curve25519 Diffie-Hellman key exchange. He is in the core development team of NaCl, the only cryptographic library that systematically protects against timing attacks.
Views: 152 Michail S
PhotoProof: Cryptographic Image Authentication for Any Set of Permissible Transformations
 
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PhotoProof: Cryptographic Image Authentication for Any Set of Permissible Transformations Assa Naveh and Eran Tromer (Tel Aviv University) Presented at the 2016 IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy May 23–25, 2016 San Jose, CA http://www.ieee-security.org/TC/SP2016/ ABSTRACT Since the invention of the camera, photos have been used to document reality and to supply proof of events. Yet today it is easy to fabricate realistic images depicting events that never happened. Thus, dozens of papers strive to develop methods for authenticating images. While some commercial cameras already attach digital signatures to photographs, the images often undergo subsequent transformations (cropping, rotation, compression, and so forth), which do not detract from their authenticity, but do change the image data and thus invalidate the signature. Existing methods address this by signing derived image properties that are invariant to some set of transformations. However, these are limited in the supported transformations, and often offer weak security guarantees. We present PhotoProof, a novel approach to image authentication based on cryptographic proofs. It can be configured, according to application requirements, to allow any permissible set of (efficiently computable) transformations. Starting with a signed image, our scheme attaches, to each legitimately derived image, a succinct proof of computational integrity attesting that the transformation was permissible. Anyone can verify these proofs, and generate updated proofs when applying further permissible transformations. Moreover, the proofs are zero-knowledge so that, for example, an authenticated cropped image reveals nothing about the cropped-out regions. PhotoProof is based on Proof-Carrying Data (PCD), a cryptographic primitive for secure execution of distributed computations. We describe the new construction, prove its security, and demonstrate a working prototype supporting a variety of permissible transformations.
The Basics of Cryptography
 
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This webinar looks at the fundamentals of cryptography and how it can be used for keeping data secure from attackers. Subscribe to the ITMPI to access over 1000+ hours of on demand, PDU approved webinars: http://www.itmpi.org/subscribe Free membership gives you access to over 150 live, PDU approved, educational broadcasts throughout the year at www.itmpi.org/webinars Premium membership gives you unlimited access -- for a period of one whole year -- to over 1000+ hours of archived PDU approved recordings at www.itmpi.org/library Use coupon code YOUTUBE during checkout to reduce your premium membership price from $199 per year to $99 per year. That's a $100 discount. And that's $99 for unlimited PDUs for ONE WHOLE YEAR! CONNECT WITH US: Google+ - http://bit.ly/13TR5FU Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/ITMPI Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/ITMPI LinkedIN - http://linkd.in/1tKbrOB Pinterest - http://www.pinterest.com/itmpi/ ABOUT US: The IT Metrics and Productivity Institute (ITMPI) is an organization dedicated to best practices education in IT management, project management, and software development. Our mission is to pull together the expertise and educational efforts of the world's leading IT thought leaders and to create a single online destination where IT practitioners and executives can meet all of their educational and professional development needs. We also have created the largest repository of high quality, PDU and CDU approved, online education in the world. ABOUT THE PRESENTER: Dr. Mark Ciampa is an Associate Professor of Information Systems in the Gordon Ford College of Business at Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Prior to this he was an Associate Professor and served as the Director of Academic Computing at Volunteer State Community College in Gallatin, Tennessee for 20 years. Mark has worked in the IT industry as a computer consultant for the U.S. Postal Service, the Tennessee Municipal Technical Advisory Service, and the University of Tennessee. He has published 17 articles in peer-reviewed journals and is also the author of over 20 technology textbooks, including Security+ Guide to Network Security Fundamentals 5ed, CWNA Guide to Wireless LANs 2ed, Guide to Wireless Communications, Security Awareness: Applying Practical Security In Your World, and Networking BASICS. Dr. Ciampa holds a PhD in technology management with a specialization in digital communication systems from Indiana State University.
2011 Killian Lecture: Ronald L. Rivest, "The Growth of Cryptography"
 
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Lecture title: "The Growth of Cryptography" Ronald L. Rivest, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science who helped develop one of the world's most widely used Internet security systems, was MIT’s James R. Killian, Jr. Faculty Achievement Award winner for 2010–2011. Rivest, the Andrew and Erna Viterbi professor in MIT's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, is known for his pioneering work in the field of cryptography, computer, and network security. February 8, 2011 Huntington Hall (10-250)
Affine Cipher Cryptanalysis Tutorial
 
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Describes how to apply cryptanalysis to ciphertext produced by the affine cipher.-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Views: 1807 Jared Loo
Winter School on Cryptography: A History of Lattice-Based Encryption - Vadim Lyubashevsky
 
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Winter School on Lattice-Based Cryptography and Applications, which took place at Bar-Ilan University between february 19 - 22. The event's program: http://crypto.biu.ac.il/winterschool2012/ Dept. of Computer Science: http://www.cs.biu.ac.il/ Bar-Ilan University: http://www1.biu.ac.il/indexE.php
Views: 3608 barilanuniversity
Theory and Practice of Cryptography
 
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Google Tech Talks November, 28 2007 Topics include: Introduction to Modern Cryptography, Using Cryptography in Practice and at Google, Proofs of Security and Security Definitions and A Special Topic in Cryptography This talk is one in a series hosted by Google University: Wednesdays, 11/28/07 - 12/19/07 from 1-2pm Speaker: Steve Weis Steve Weis received his PhD from the Cryptography and Information Security group at MIT, where he was advised by Ron Rivest. He is a member of Google's Applied Security (AppSec) team and is the technical lead for Google's internal cryptographic library, KeyMaster.
Views: 112131 GoogleTechTalks
Training Module: NXP & NTRU Cryptography for ARM MCUs
 
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In this presentation, you will learn about the cryptographic software solution developed by NTRU for use with NXP's ARM7 LPC2000 microcontrollers. NTRU is a market leader providing comprehensive security products and services to businesses that wish to leverage the power of embedded security technologies. We will discuss the requirements for encryption and the different solutions we provide, as well as compare hardware encryption with software encryption. We will also examine the code sizes and throughputs of the different solutions.
Views: 494 LPCZone
Few other Cryptanalytic Techniques
 
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Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 4474 nptelhrd
CERIAS Security: Recent Attacks on MD5 1/6
 
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Clip 1/6 Speaker: John Black · University of Colorado at Boulder Cryptology is typically defined as cryptography (the construction of cryptographic algorithms) and cryptanalysis (attacks on these algorithms). Both are important, but the latter is more fun. Cryptographic hash functions are one of the core building blocks within both security protocols and other application domains. In the last few decades a wealth of these functions have been developed, but the two in most widespread usage are MD5 and SHA1. Recently, there has been a great deal of activity regarding the cryptanalysis of MD5. We survey the recent attacks on the MD5 hash function from the modest progress in the mid 90s to the startling recent results instigated by Xiaoyun Wang. We will look at the details of these attacks, some recent improvements, two applications, and discuss the current outlook on cryptographic hashing. For more information go to the Cerias website (http://bit.ly/dsFCBF)
Views: 892 Christiaan008
Block Cipher Standards (DES)
 
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Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 29789 nptelhrd
Annihilation Attacks for Multilinear Maps  Cryptanalysis of Indistinguishability Obfuscation over GG
 
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Eric Miles and Amit Sahai and Mark Zhandry, Crypto 2016. See http://www.iacr.org/cryptodb/data/paper.php?pubkey=27691
Views: 160 TheIACR
Lecture - 32 Basic Cryptographic Concepts Part : I
 
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Lecture Series on Internet Technologies by Prof.I.Sengupta, Department of Computer Science & Engineering ,IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 103018 nptelhrd
NaCl: A New Crypto Library [ShmooCon 2015]
 
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Daniel J. Bernstein and Tanja Lange NaCl (pronounced "salt") is a new easy-to-use high-speed software library for encryption, decryption, signatures, etc. NaCl's goal is to provide all of the core operations needed to build higher-level cryptographic tools. Of course, other libraries already exist for these core operations, but NaCl improves security, improves usability, and improves speed. We'll explain how the design and implementation of NaCl avoid various types of cryptographic disasters suffered by previous cryptographic libraries such as OpenSSL. This talk also presents TweetNaCl, a self-contained public-domain C library which reimplements the NaCl library in just 100 tweets. See https://twitter.com/tweetnacl. We're researchers in applied cryptography working on making secure crypto more usable and on eliminating bad crypto. This includes us sometimes breaking bad crypto but most of the time our work is constructive. We're the core NaCl development team, along with Peter Schwabe. We've designed several cryptosystems, including Salsa20, Poly1305, Curve25519, and Ed25519. These cryptosystems are designed for security, robustness, performance, and ease of implementation without data-dependent branches and without data-dependent array indices. We use these functions in NaCl to make our lives easier and the software better. We've done some other things in crypto as well.
Views: 579 Michail S
David A. McGrew, Scalable Efficient Cryptography for Multiple Security Services (July 29, 2004)
 
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From the CISR video library (http://www.cisr.us) David A. McGrew, Cisco Systems Scalable Efficient Cryptography for Multiple Security Services July 29, 2004 at the Naval Postgraduate School (http://www.nps.edu) ABSTRACT The Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) of operation for block ciphers is secure and highly efficient, and can scale to very high data rates. It provides both encryption and message authentication, using universal hashing based on multiplication in the finite field GF(2128). GCM has several features that make it easy to use. It provides multiple security services with a single key, can accept nonces of arbitrary length, can act as a stand-alone message authentication code (MAC), and can be used as an incremental MAC. We will show how application designers using GCM can benefit from these features by providing example uses, including the important case of remote storage authentication. About David A. McGrew, Ph.D.: David works at Cisco Systems where he manages the Advanced Security Development group. His main interest is building practical security systems using cryptography with an emphasis on performance, scalability and deployability. His theoretical interests include cryptanalysis, the design of symmetric ciphers and message authentication codes, and information theory. At Cisco, he researches and develops secure protocols and systems, and represents security issues on the University Research Board. He also co-chairs the IRTF Crypto Forum Research Group and is a member of the International Association for Cryptologic Research and the Internet Society. David is an alumnus of The Ohio State University (B.S, Physics) and Michigan State University (Ph.D., Theoretical Nuclear Physics).
Views: 511 securitylectures
Network Security - AES Selection Criteria
 
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Fundamentals of Computer Network Security This specialization in intended for IT professionals, computer programmers, managers, IT security professionals who like to move up ladder, who are seeking to develop network system security skills. Through four courses, we will cover the Design and Analyze Secure Networked Systems, Develop Secure Programs with Basic Cryptography and Crypto API, Hacking and Patching Web Applications, Perform Penetration Testing, and Secure Networked Systems with Firewall and IDS, which will prepare you to perform tasks as Cyber Security Engineer, IT Security Analyst, and Cyber Security Analyst. course 2 Basic Cryptography and Programming with Crypto API: About this course: In this MOOC, we will learn the basic concepts and principles of cryptography, apply basic cryptoanalysis to decrypt messages encrypted with mono-alphabetic substitution cipher, and discuss the strongest encryption technique of the one-time-pad and related quantum key distribution systems. We will also learn the efficient symmetric key cryptography algorithms for encrypting data, discuss the DES and AES standards, study the criteria for selecting AES standard, present the block cipher operating modes and discuss how they can prevent and detect the block swapping attacks, and examine how to defend against replay attacks. We will learn the Diffie-Hellman Symmetric Key Exchange Protocol to generate a symmetric key for two parties to communicate over insecure channel. We will learn the modular arithmetic and the Euler Totient Theorem to appreciate the RSA Asymmetric Crypto Algorithm, and use OpenSSL utility to realize the basic operations of RSA Crypto Algorithm. Armed with these knowledge, we learn how to use PHP Crypto API to write secure programs for encrypting and decrypting documents and for signing and verify documents. We then apply these techniques to enhance the registration process of a web site which ensures the account created is actually requested by the owner of the email account. Module 2 - Symmetric Key Cryptography In this module we present the basic mechanism of symmetric key crytography algorithms, discuss the DES and AES standard, describe the criteria for selecting AES standard, present the block cipher operating modes and discuss how the block swapping attacks and replay attacks can be prevented and detected. Learning Objectives • Understand the criteria for selecting crypto algorithms • Perform cryptoanalysis on simple ciphers • Select operating modes for symmetric encryption and to prevent block swapping and replay attacks • Understand DES and AES standards and their buildig blocks Subscribe at: https://www.coursera.org
Views: 49 intrigano
What is INFORMATION THEORY? What does INFORMATION THEORY mean? INFORMATION THEORY meaning
 
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What is INFORMATION THEORY? What does INFORMATION THEORY mean? INFORMATION THEORY meaning. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information. It was originally proposed by Claude E. Shannon in 1948 to find fundamental limits on signal processing and communication operations such as data compression, in a landmark paper entitled "A Mathematical Theory of Communication". Now this theory has found applications in many other areas, including statistical inference, natural language processing, cryptography, neurobiology, the evolution and function of molecular codes, model selection in ecology, thermal physics, quantum computing, linguistics, plagiarism detection, pattern recognition, and anomaly detection. A key measure in information theory is "entropy". Entropy quantifies the amount of uncertainty involved in the value of a random variable or the outcome of a random process. For example, identifying the outcome of a fair coin flip (with two equally likely outcomes) provides less information (lower entropy) than specifying the outcome from a roll of a die (with six equally likely outcomes). Some other important measures in information theory are mutual information, channel capacity, error exponents, and relative entropy. Applications of fundamental topics of information theory include lossless data compression (e.g. ZIP files), lossy data compression (e.g. MP3s and JPEGs), and channel coding (e.g. for Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)). The field is at the intersection of mathematics, statistics, computer science, physics, neurobiology, and electrical engineering. Its impact has been crucial to the success of the Voyager missions to deep space, the invention of the compact disc, the feasibility of mobile phones, the development of the Internet, the study of linguistics and of human perception, the understanding of black holes, and numerous other fields. Important sub-fields of information theory include source coding, channel coding, algorithmic complexity theory, algorithmic information theory, information-theoretic security, and measures of information. Information theory studies the transmission, processing, utilization, and extraction of information. Abstractly, information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty. In the case of communication of information over a noisy channel, this abstract concept was made concrete in 1948 by Claude Shannon in his paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", in which "information" is thought of as a set of possible messages, where the goal is to send these messages over a noisy channel, and then to have the receiver reconstruct the message with low probability of error, in spite of the channel noise. Shannon's main result, the noisy-channel coding theorem showed that, in the limit of many channel uses, the rate of information that is asymptotically achievable is equal to the channel capacity, a quantity dependent merely on the statistics of the channel over which the messages are sent. Information theory is closely associated with a collection of pure and applied disciplines that have been investigated and reduced to engineering practice under a variety of rubrics throughout the world over the past half century or more: adaptive systems, anticipatory systems, artificial intelligence, complex systems, complexity science, cybernetics, informatics, machine learning, along with systems sciences of many descriptions. Information theory is a broad and deep mathematical theory, with equally broad and deep applications, amongst which is the vital field of coding theory. Coding theory is concerned with finding explicit methods, called codes, for increasing the efficiency and reducing the error rate of data communication over noisy channels to near the Channel capacity. These codes can be roughly subdivided into data compression (source coding) and error-correction (channel coding) techniques. In the latter case, it took many years to find the methods Shannon's work proved were possible. A third class of information theory codes are cryptographic algorithms (both codes and ciphers). Concepts, methods and results from coding theory and information theory are widely used in cryptography and cryptanalysis. See the article ban (unit) for a historical application. Information theory is also used in information retrieval, intelligence gathering, gambling, statistics, and even in musical composition.
Views: 2889 The Audiopedia

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