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Digital Signatures
 
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This video is part of the Udacity course "Intro to Information Security". Watch the full course at https://www.udacity.com/course/ud459
Views: 42667 Udacity
Truly Anonymous Credentials Using Modern Cryptography - Matthew Di Ferrante
 
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When using anonymous networks like Tor or I2P, one problem is always how to prevent spam/DoS attacks when you cannot distinguish one entity from another, and hence cannot limit them without either compromising their anonymity by requiring registration of some kind, or requiring captcha-like challenges which are time consuming to implement and usually only a temporary solution at best. Here I introduce a new kind of authentication system based on homomorphic properties of elliptic curve cryptography and zero knowledge proofs called "Linkable Ring Signatures". It allows one to add their public key to a larger group of existing public keys, called a "ring", and sign using the entire "ring" of keys + private key in such a way that no one can tell which private key has signed the message, but can mathematically verify that it was one private key corresponding to one of the public keys in the ring. On top of that, it allows a verifier that only has access to the public keys in the ring to make sure that for any one [message, ring] pair, a private key has only signed it once - duplicate signatures for the same message are detectable. This allows for limiting interactions from any party holding one of these access keys (to say, one message per minute per key), without the party losing any anonymity as their signature is indistinguishable from any other party in the ring. Furthermore, because ring signatures use a cryptographic component called "zero knowledge proofs", signing reveals zero information about the private key - hence no matter how many signatures are generated, it is impossible to use them to try to forge messages or fingerprint/bruteforce the signer key. The proof of this will be shown in the talk. In this talk I will walk through the cryptographic primitives that make this possible, and show a demo service on Tor/I2P that implements this scheme to make an anti-spam anonymous forum.
Stanford Computer Forum: Applications of VRF by Dominic Williams (String Labs)
 
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Dominic Williams, CTO of String Labs, presents at Stanford Computer Forum on applications of Verifiable Random Function (VRF). = Abstract = We argue that a source of unmanipulable and unpredictable random values provides the most effective means to drive and organize decentralized networks and their higher-level applications. We demonstrate this idea by introducing two ingenious systems. Firstly we review how a network can use a “Threshold Relay” system that applies unique deterministic threshold signature cryptography (Dan Boneh’s BLS signature scheme) as a VRF to produce such a sequence of random values, further exploring how a robust high performance blockchain can be built upon the framework. Then we review how a network created using Threshold Relay can host “smart contract” software implementing an autonomous commercial banking system that applies generated randomness to give out loans algorithmically. String Labs is currently incorporating both methodologies into the DFINITY and Phi projects.
Views: 1082 Tom Ding
SF Cryptocurrency Devs Presents : A Deep Dive into Chia Script and BLS Signatures
 
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0201718 James Prestwich, of Chia Network, introduces us to radical rework of scripting language for Chia Script with BLS Signatures. PDF Slides are available here: https://goo.gl/9GSXZ5 Want more like this?: https://www.meetup.com/SF-Cryptocurrency-Devs/
Stanford Computer Forum  Applications of VRF by Dominic Williams String Labs
 
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Dominic Williams, CTO of String Labs, presents at Stanford Computer Forum on applications of Verifiable Random Function (VRF). = Abstract = We argue that a source of unmanipulable and unpredictable random values provides the most effective means to drive and organize decentralized networks and their higher-level applications. We demonstrate this idea by introducing two ingenious systems. Firstly we review how a network can use a “Threshold Relay” system that applies unique deterministic threshold signature cryptography (Dan Boneh’s BLS signature scheme) as a VRF to produce such a sequence of random values, further exploring how a robust high performance blockchain can be built upon the framework. Then we review how a network created using Threshold Relay can host “smart contract” software implementing an autonomous commercial banking system that applies generated randomness to give out loans algorithmically. String Labs is currently incorporating both methodologies into the DFINITY and Phi projects.
Views: 163 DFINITY
Stanford Seminar - Stopping grinding attacks in proofs of space
 
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EE380: Computer Systems Colloquium Seminar Stopping grinding attacks in proofs of space Speaker: Bram Cohen, Chia Network The reduced power requirements of proofs of space, which is one of its core features, opens it up to grinding attacks, in which an attacker tries many different possible histories at once and selects the most advantageous one. I'll explain how through extensive use of canonical primitives, the addition of verifiable delay functions, and careful hooking of everything together, it's possible to get grinding attacks under control. Optional Readings Blockchains and various kinds of cryptocurrencies are a hot topic these days. For those wanting to prepare for Bram Cohen's talk, the following links or references may be helpful. The original Bitcoin paper, which introduced the blockchain. Bitcoin (Wikipedia) . Block Chains From a Distributed Computing Perspective (Herlihy, DRAFT) There Is Nothing Virtual About Bitcoin's Energy Appetite (NY Times) The Truth About Blockchain Harvard Business Review Stanford Online Course (Dan Boneh) on Bitcoin and Crypto Currencies And of course the papers, slide decks, and videos on the Chia Network site should provide enough background for the presentation. About the Speaker: Bram Cohen is the founder of Chia Network, building a new greener and more decentralized cryptocurrency. Previously he invented BitTorrent and founded BitTorrent Inc. Bram's Wikipedia Biography (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bram_Cohen) For more information about this seminar and its speaker, you can visit https://ee380.stanford.edu/Abstracts/180214.html Support for the Stanford Colloquium on Computer Systems Seminar Series provided by the Stanford Computer Forum. Colloquium on Computer Systems Seminar Series (EE380) presents the current research in design, implementation, analysis, and use of computer systems. Topics range from integrated circuits to operating systems and programming languages. It is free and open to the public, with new lectures each week. Learn more: http://bit.ly/WinYX5
Views: 2966 stanfordonline
Digital signature
 
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A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender, such that the sender cannot deny having sent the message (authentication and non-repudiation) and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity). Digital signatures are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 221 Audiopedia
SF Crypto Devs Presents Chia Deep Dive pt 2: Proof of Space & Time w/ Bram Cohen
 
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How to build a secure proof of space blockchain with only three new cryptographic primitives. • What is Proof of Space • What are the three cryptographic primitives needed • A deep introduction to Chia Network Slides: https://goo.gl/sYJSyJ Want more like this?: https://www.meetup.com/SF-Cryptocurrency-Devs/
What is A Ethereum Dapp?
 
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What is A Blockchain Dapp? You'll receive $10 in free bitcoin by signing up with this link http://bit.ly/2oesV41 Bitcoin & Etherum Storage Wallet: http://bit.ly/2o7BmgW What is Dapp Guide: (Must Read) https://blockgeeks.com/guides/dapps-the-decentralized-future/ What are Dapps you might ask? Imagine having your car working away, transporting passengers while you’re at work. Imagine having your computer utilising its spare capacity to serve businesses and people across the globe. Imagine being paid for browsing the web and taking ownership of your, arguably invaluable, attention. Imagine the world like that. That world is not far away. A paradigm shift in the way we view software models is approaching. When Bitcoin, the first cryptocurrency, made us reassess our definition of Store of Value (SoV), it also revealed a sneak peek of the future: a world running on decentralized applications (Dapps). These distributed, resilient, transparent and incentivized applications will prove themselves to the world by remapping the technological landscape. Dapps And The Decentralized FutureSave Understanding Blockchain Before we can even fathom what Dapps do, we need to be familiar with its underlying technology—the blockchain. Put simply, a blockchain is a ledger of records organized in ‘blocks’ that are linked together by cryptographic validation. It is a digital storage of consensus truth. The key is to understand that this ledger is neither stored in a centralized location, nor managed by any single entity, hence its distributed-ness. The block validation system results in new transactions being added irreversibly and old transactions preserved forever for all to see, hence its transparency and resilience. Open-source software that leverage on the blockchain technology are called Dapps. Save The Birth of Decentralized Applications As the concept is still in its infancy, there might not be one definition of what a Dapp is. However, there are noticeable common features of Dapps: Open Source. Ideally, it should be governed by autonomy and all changes must be decided by the consensus, or a majority, of its users. Its code base should be available for scrutiny. Decentralized. All records of the application’s operation must be stored on a public and decentralized blockchain to avoid pitfalls of centralization. Incentivized. Validators of the blockchain should be incentivized by rewarding them accordingly with cryptographic tokens. Protocol. The application community must agree on a cryptographic algorithm to show proof of value. For example, Bitcoin uses Proof of Work (PoW) and Ethereum is currently using PoW with plans for a hybrid PoW/Proof of Stake (PoS)5 in the future. If we adhere to the above definition, the first Dapp was in fact Bitcoin itself. Bitcoin is an implemented blockchain solution that arose from problems revolving around centralization and censorship. One can say Bitcoin is a self-sustaining public ledger that allows efficient transactions without intermediaries and centralized authorities. The Ethereum Network While both Bitcoin and Ethereum may be loosely defined as Dapps aimed at solving real-world problems, Ethereum has a much bigger plan in mind. In Ethereum’s white paper, it was stated that the intention of Ethereum is to create an alternative protocol for building decentralized applications with emphasis on development time, security, and scaling. You may think of Ethereum as, for the lack of a better analogy, the Mother of Dapps. Armed with its very own language, Solidity, Ethereum enables developers to form smart contacts using the Turing-complete Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). With these tools available, developers made Dapps that have real-life use cases, ranging from asset management to resource planning. Examples of successful Ethereum-based Dapps that have achieved millions of dollars in market cap include Golem, Augur and Melonport. As I mentioned in my previous post, each of them aspires to rewire the economy using blockchain technology, and move us a step closer to a decentralised world. My name is Ameer Rosic, and I'm a serial entrepreneur, investor, marketing Strategist and Blockchain Evangelist Book Recommendations: http://amzn.to/2pv7kF4 Blockchain Training: http://bit.ly/2nGhdn0 Blog http://www.Ameerrosic.com Blockgeeks: http://www.blockgeeks.com Facebook http://www.Facebook.com/ameerrosic Twitter http://www.Twitter.com/ameerrosic InstaGram http://www.Instagram.com/ameerrosic
Views: 32031 Ameer Rosic
Authorized Public Auditing of Dynamic Big Data Storage on Cloud with Efficient Verifiable Fine Grain
 
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To get this project in ONLINE or through TRAINING Sessions, Contact:JP INFOTECH, Old No.31, New No.86, 1st Floor, 1st Avenue, Ashok Pillar, Chennai -83. Landmark: Next to Kotak Mahendra Bank. Pondicherry Office: JP INFOTECH, #45, Kamaraj Salai, Thattanchavady, Puducherry -9. Landmark: Next to VVP Nagar Arch. Mobile: (0) 9952649690 , Email: [email protected], web: www.jpinfotech.org Blog: www.jpinfotech.blogspot.com Authorized Public Auditing of Dynamic Big Data Storage on Cloud with Efficient Verifiable Fine-Grained Updates Cloud computing opens a new era in IT as it can provide various elastic and scalable IT services in a pay-as-you-go fashion, where its users can reduce the huge capital investments in their own IT infrastructure. In this philosophy, users of cloud storage services no longer physically maintain direct control over their data, which makes data security one of the major concerns of using cloud. Existing research work already allows data integrity to be verified without possession of the actual data file. When the verification is done by a trusted third party, this verification process is also called data auditing, and this third party is called an auditor. However, such schemes in existence suffer from several common drawbacks. First, a necessary authorization/authentication process is missing between the auditor and cloud service provider, i.e., anyone can challenge the cloud service provider for a proof of integrity of certain file, which potentially puts the quality of the so-called ‘auditing-as-a-service’ at risk; Second, although some of the recent work based on BLS signature can already support fully dynamic data updates over fixed-size data blocks, they only support updates with fixed-sized blocks as basic unit, which we call coarse-grained updates. As a result, every small update will cause re-computation and updating of the authenticator for an entire file block, which in turn causes higher storage and communication overheads. In this paper, we provide a formal analysis for possible types of fine-grained data updates and propose a scheme that can fully support authorized auditing and fine-grained update requests. Based on our scheme, we also propose an enhancement that can dramatically reduce communication overheads for verifying small updates. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that our scheme can offer not only enhanced security and flexibility, but also significantly lower overhead for big data applications with a large number of frequent small updates, such as applications in social media and business transactions
Views: 174 jpinfotechprojects
Electronic Signature  High impact Strategies   What You Need to Know  Definitions  Adoptions  Impact
 
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https://store.theartofservice.com/electronic-signature-high-impact-strategies-what-you-need-to-know-definitions-adoptions-impact-benefits-maturity-vendors.html Code defines an electronic signature for the purpose of US law as an electronic sound, symbol, or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record. ...In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Electronic Signature right away, covering: Electronic signature, Cryptography, Outline of cryptography, 1dl, Anonymous veto network, Array controller based encryption, Authenticated encryption, Authorization certificate, Autokey cypher, Avalanche effect, Averaging argument, Backdoor (computing), Bent function, Bigram, BLACKER, Blind credential, Blind signature, Blinding (cryptography), Block design, Block size (cryptography), Blom's scheme, BLS (cryptography), Blum-Micali algorithm, Boneh/Franklin scheme, Boolean function, Brown fox code, Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic, Bus encryption, Byzantine fault tolerance, Cardan grille, Chaocipher, Cipher, Cipher runes, Ciphertext, Ciphertext expansion, Ciphertext indistinguishability, Civision, Client-Side Encryption, Clipper chip, Cocks IBE scheme, Code (cryptography), Code word, Codebook, Codress message, Collision resistance, Commitment scheme, Communications security, Comparison of cryptographic hash functions, Completeness (cryptography), Compromise, Computer insecurity, Concrete security, Confusion and diffusion, Conjugate coding, Correlation attack, Correlation immunity, Cover (telecommunications), Cover-coding, Critical Security Parameter, Crypto-politics, Cryptochannel, Cryptographic engineering, Cryptographic hash function, Cryptographic nonce, Cryptographic Service Provider, Cryptographic Test Correction, Portal:Cryptography, CrypTool, Cryptosystem, Cryptovirology, Decipherment, Deniable encryption, Designated verifier signature, Deterministic encryption, Digital credential, Digital signature, Digital signature forgery, Dining cryptographers problem, Diplomatic bag, Direct Anonymous Attestation, Discrete logarithm, EFF DES cracker, Elliptic curve cryptography, Encrypted function, Encryption, End-to-end encryption, Enigma machine, Entropic security, Ephemeral key, Factorization of polynomials over a finite field and irreducibility tests, Feedback with Carry Shift Registers, File camouflage, Floradora...and much more.
Views: 107 TheArtofService
What are the Innovations Behind DFINITY? | Cédric Waldburger
 
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I sat down with Mahnush who joined the DFINITY team early on to talk about the various innovations that DFINITY will release. We cover terms such as Threshold Signatures, Random Beacon and Distributed Key Generation. We not only speak about these concepts but cover why they are so important. Topics Discussed: [1:40] Secure Multi-Party Computation [2:45] Cloud Computing [6:30] Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance Protocol [7:30] Blockchain Protocols [8:30] Proof of Work [11:20] The Way DFINITY Creates Randomness [12:05] Threshold Cryptography [13:05] Uniqueness [15:51] DKG (Distributed Key Generation) [20:09] Sharding [20:50] Complete Proof in an Asynchronous Network [22:00] Non-Interactive DKG (Distributed Key Generation) [22:30] DFINTY's Sharding System [24:19] Block Time & Finality About Cédric: Cédric Waldburger joined DFINITY early on and is now focusing on the Growth. He leads the initiatives on Developer and Mining adoption, alongside with heading some of DFINITY's partnerships. Prior to joining DFINITY, he's been a founder and investor and has been a crypto enthusiast since 2012. He has been passionate about startups. Having founded his first company at the age of 14, he has built various tech companies related to productivity, computer vision, and cryptocurrencies. In this immensely exciting and obliging journey, he instigates the avenues of bringing the maximum impact wherever he can and is skilled to. For accomplishing this journey and his drive, he hasn't owned an apartment in several years. Instead, he has since lived out of a bag with only 64 things. About DFINITY: The DFINITY project was formed to research ways of enabling public decentralized networks to host a virtual computer of unlimited capacity. This rests upon a new blockchain computer that is similar in concept to Ethereum but has vastly improved performance and, ultimately, unlimited capacity. Follow Cédric: Blog: http://www.cedricwaldburger.com YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/cedricwaldburger Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/cedricwaldburger/ Facebook (private): http://www.facebook.com/cediwaldburger Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/cediwaldburger Follow DFINITY: Blog: http://medium.com/dfinity YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/dfinity Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/dfinity.org/ Twitter: http://twitter.com/dfinity Reddit: http://reddit.com/r/dfinity Telegram: https://t.me/dfinity Rocket.Chat: https://dfinity.rocket.chat/
Views: 545 DFINITY
Computer engineering
 
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Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer hardware and software. Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering (or electrical engineering), software design, and hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work, but also how they integrate into the larger picture. Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, and designing operating systems. Computer engineers are also suited for robotics research, which relies heavily on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motors, communications, and sensors. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 129 Audiopedia
Harvard University Commencement 2017 Morning Exercises
 
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The Morning Exercises at Harvard's 366th Commencement at Tercentenary Theatre on May 25, 2017. For more information, visit http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/topic/commencement-2017/.
Views: 51753 Harvard University
K Camp - Comfortable
 
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Views: 61246842 KCampVEVO
Economics Part 5: Unemployment (Second Edition)
 
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Part 5 of a 5-part series covering the basics of economics. This updated edition has HD video and more information.
Views: 1163 Shane Killian
Computer engineering
 
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Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer hardware and software. Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering , software design, and hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work, but also how they integrate into the larger picture. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Public domain image source in video
Views: 79 encyclopediacc
Privacy, Security, Society - Computer Science for Business Leaders 2016
 
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Apple versus FBI; encryption; Dropbox.
Views: 48337 CS50
Coinscrum {minicon} DFINITY CTO Dominic Williams (Slides linked below)
 
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Coinscrum {mini-con} : w/ DFINITY Chief Scientist Dominic Williams Click here to follow presentation slides https://www.slideshare.net/secret/CSEeuZc8m5HnLp http://www.coinscrum.com/ Recorded by Proof of Work Media London 2017 Follow Coinscrum: https://twitter.com/coinscrum Tip BTC: 1EJDArq3Ye1wi9gdSC1hgFuZYkK15DVuQn
Views: 167 Coinscrum
Week 8, continued
 
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Views: 22258 CS50