The ability to decide the relative strength of acids and bases is very important in Organic Chemistry. It helps us to understand what groups will get attacked by what other groups and whether the reaction is moving in the right direction. 'Strong and reactive tends to become Stable and Weak'. In this series of videos, we look at all the factors that we can use to judge the order of acid or base strengths of a given set of compounds. We can then arrange them in either increasing or decreasing order of acidity / basicity. The first important factor that helps us decide the relative strength of bases is the atom carrying the negative charge. When you move from left to right in a period, the negative charge becomes more stable and hence less reactive. Thus, basicity decreases. Similarly, down the group, negative charge is stabilized. So, when you move from top to bottom in a group, again basic strength decreases.
Views: 66232 Busting JEE Main
This chemistry video tutorial explains how to memorize the polyatomic ions. It provides the name of the common polyatomic ions, the charges and their respective formulas as well. Common polyatomic ions include sulfate, nitrate, acetate, ammonium, hydroxide, sulfite, cyanide, phosphate, disulfide, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfate, bisulfite, chromate, dichromate, pyrophosphate, permanganate, thiosulfate, peroxide, superoxide, oxalate, borate, iodate, perchlorate, hypochlorite, bromite, and nitrite just to name a few. This video contains plenty of examples and practice problems including a quiz that tests you to see if you remember the common polyatomic ions.
Views: 246237 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
http://leah4sci.com/acidbase presents: CARIO C = Charge to Rank Acidity and Basicity in Organic Chemistry Need help with orgo? Download my free guide '10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry' HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ Video 3 in my Orgo acid base series shows you how to rank acids and bases by comparing the charges of acids, or charges of conjugate base. Catch the entire series, along with my acid/base cheat sheet and practice prolem set on my website: http://leah4sci.com/acidbase For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://studyhall.leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/
Views: 52946 Leah4sci
This introductory chemistry video tutorial explains the periodic table of the elements and some of its trends and characteristics. This video contains a few examples, concepts, and practice problems. It's very useful for kids learning the table for the first time but unfortunately - this periodic table video contains no song. Here is a list of topics: 1. Alkali Metals - Li, Na, K, Rb - Reactivity With Water 2. Alkaline Earth Metals - Be, Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba +2 Charge 3. Valence Electrons, Core Electrons, and Charges 4. Transition Metals - Variable Charge 5. Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids 6. Electrical Conductivity of Metals, Malleable & Ductile 7. Characteristics of Metalloids Such as Si and Ge 8. Chalcogens - O, S, Se - 6 Valence Electrons 9. Valence Electrons vs Core Electrons 10. Halogens - Most Reactive Nonmetals - F, Br, Cl, I 11. Noble Gases - Chemically Inert - Nonreactive - He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe 12. Inner Transition Metals - Lanthanides and Actinides 13. Representative Elements Group 1, 2, and 13-18 14. Atomic Structure - Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons 15. The Nucleus of an atom 16. Electromagnetic Force vs Strong Nuclear Force 17. Atoms vs Ions 18. Atomic Mass vs Atomic Number 19. How To Calculate The Number of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons inside an atom or ion. 20. Elements Symbol Quiz / Worksheet Review
Views: 58708 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
This video shows you how to write the electron configuration of elements such as Sodium (Na), Bromine (Br) and Cobalt (Co). It also shows you how to write the electron configuration of anions and cations that have charges such as sodium (Na+), bromide (Br-), and transition metal ion cobalt (Co+3).
Views: 50404 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction on how to calculate oxidation numbers. It discusses how to find the oxidation states of elements such as Zn, O2, F2, and P4 and how to find the oxidation numbers of polyatomic ions such as SO4 2-, PO4 3-, NO3-, ClO4-, Hg2+2, O2-2 and so forth. Examples include transition metals found in ionic compounds such as Fe3O4, V2O5, and K2CrO4. In addition, this video explains what's behind a fractional oxidation state. For instance, the oxidation number of Fe in Fe3O4 is a fraction +8/3. This tutorial relates oxidation states to electronegativity and positive and negative partial charges. Practice problems include OF2, HCl, NaH, BH3, H2S, SO2, NH3, NO2, CH4, and CO2. This video covers all of the rules relating to oxidation numbers. For instance, Hydrogen usually has a +1 oxidation state when bounded to a nonmetal but it tends to have a -1 oxidation number when attached to a metal. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Views: 95074 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
This chemistry video tutorial explains the subatomic particles found inside an atom such as protons, neutrons, and electrons. It also discusses isotopes, atomic mass, atomic number, and average atomic mass. This video contains plenty of examples and practice problems. Here is a list of topics: 1. Atomic Structure - The Nucleus 2. Subatomic Particles - Protons, Neutrons, & Electrons 3. Negative and Positive Charges - Like Charges Repel & Opposites Attract 4. Calculating The Number of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons Inside an Atom and Ion 5. Atomic Number vs Mass Number 6. Isotopes of Carbon: C-13 and C-12 7. Atoms vs Ions - Protons & Electrons 8. How To Calculate The Average Atomic Mass of an Element 9. Relative Percent Isotope Abundance Calculation
Views: 66155 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
Subscribe Now: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=ehoweducation Watch More: http://www.youtube.com/ehoweducation You can identify the charge of an ion by carefully paying attention to a few key traits. Find out how to identify the charge of an ion with help from an experienced chemistry professional in this free video clip. Expert: Robin Higgins Filmmaker: bjorn wilde Series Description: Chemistry plays a very important role in all of our lives each and every day. Get tips on chemistry with help from an experienced chemistry professional in this free video series.
Views: 236358 eHowEducation
http://leah4sci.com/acidbase presents: CARIO A = Atom (size and electronegativity) to Rank Acidity and Basicity in Organic Chemistry Need help with orgo? Download my free guide '10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry' HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ Video 4 in my Orgo acid base series shows you how to rank acids and bases by comparing the electronegativity of atoms in the same period, or by comparing size of atoms in the same group on the periodic table. Catch the entire series, along with my acid/base cheat sheet and practice prolem set on my website: http://leah4sci.com/acidbase For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://studyhall.leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/
Views: 64226 Leah4sci
To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry Confused about ions? We'll learn the difference between an atom and an ion. Ions are formed because of a net charge on an atom, because the number of protons and electrons do not balance. This means that the atom is no longer electrically neutral, but is a cation or an anion. We also talk about polyatomic ions.
Views: 714075 Tyler DeWitt
This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into Ionization Energy. It discusses the periodic trends and exceptions as well as providing plenty of examples and practice problems. The first ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion. The second ionization energy is associated with the removal of the second electron. Ionization energy increases with effective nuclear charge but decreases with distance, shielding and electron repulsions. Paired electrons typically have lower ionization energies that unpaired electrons. This explains how to determine which element and ion has the greater first ionization energy. It covers cations and anions and how to rank elements in order of increasing ionization energy. In addition, it discusses how to identify the element given the ionization energies of that element using valence electrons and core electrons. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Views: 37779 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
This chemistry video tutorial focuses on intermolecular forces such hydrogen bonding, ion-ion interactions, dipole dipole, ion dipole, london dispersion forces and van deer waal forces. It contains plenty of examples and practice problems to help you understand the most important concepts related to this material. General Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BV-uX6wXQgyqZXvRd0tUUV0&index=3 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ Here is a list of topics: 1. Ion - Ion dipole interactions of KF and CaO 2. Electrostatic Force and Lattice Energy- The effect of charge and ionic radii or size 3. How To Determine Which Ionic Compound has a Higher Melting Point - NaF vs KCl 4. Ion-Dipole Interactions - NaCl and H2O 5. Definition of a Dipole - Polar Molecules & Charge Separation 6. Dipole-Dipole Interactions of Polar Molecules - Partial Charge Electrostatic Attractions of CO 7. Hydrogen Bonding between Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine 8. Intermolecular Forces vs Intramolecular Forces 9. Hydrogen Bonding vs Polar & Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 10. London Dispersion Forces & Van Der Waals Forces 11. Permanent Dipoles and Temporary Induced Dipoles - Distribution of electrons in electron cloud 12. Difference Between Atoms and Ions - Cations vs Anions - Number of Electrons and Protons 13. The relationship between Polarizability and Dispersion Forces 14. How To Determine the Strongest Intermolecular Forces In Compounds Such as MgO, KCl, H2O, CH4, CO2, SO2, HF, CH3OH, LiCl, CH2O, CO, and I2 15. The relationship between Boiling Point and Vapor Pressure 16. Straight Chained vs Branched Alkanes - Boiling Point and Intermolecular Forces - Surface Area 17. Ranking Boiling Point In Order of Increasing Strength for I2, Br2, F2, and Cl2 18. Polar and Nonpolar Organic Compounds - Polarity and Water Solubility 19. Ranking Boiling In Decreasing Order For HF, HCl, HBr, and HI 20. The effect of Molar Mass and Number of electrons on the Overall Intermolecular Force / LDF
Views: 349781 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
This chemistry video tutorial explains the difference between elements, atoms, molecules, and ions. It also explains how to distinguish ionic and molecular compounds also known as covalent compounds. Atoms are electrically neutral and contain equal number of protons and electrons. Ions have a net charge and contain a different number of protons and electrons. Positively charged ions are known as cations and negatively charged ions are known as anions. Atoms and Ions have the same number of neutrons. A molecule is particle consisting of multiple atoms. Pure elements are substances composed of one type of atom where as a compound is made up of different types of atoms. Ionic compounds consist of metals and nonmetals and contain ions with charges. Covalent compounds or molecular compounds usually consist of nonmetals.
Views: 132079 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
A step-by-step description on how to calculate formal charges. Formal charges are important because they allow us to predict which Lewis structure is the most likely to exist in the real world. Get more chemistry help at www.Breslyn.org. Often you are given a compound with more than one possible Lewis structure. Often this is the case with elements like Sulfur or Phosphorus which can have more than eight valence electrons. In these cases it is important to calculate formal charges to determine which structure is the best. The structure with formal charges closest to zero will be the best.
Views: 354964 Wayne Breslyn
How anion size and bond dissociation energies affect acid strength. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acids-and-bases-topic/copy-of-acid-base-equilibria/v/conjugate-acids-and-bases?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acids-and-bases-topic/acids-and-bases/v/strong-acids-and-strong-bases?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyEot66LrwWFEMONvrIBh3A?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 135830 Khan Academy Organic Chemistry
This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into complex ions, ligands, and coordination compounds. A complex ion typically consist of a transition metal cation bounded to ligands which can be neutral molecules or ions. The number of ligands attached to the transition metal ion is known as the coordination number. This video explains how to determine the oxidation state of the transition metal ion in a complex ion and within a coordination compound. A coordination compound consist of a complex ion and a counterion. The counterion may be a cation or an anion. This video briefly discusses werner's theory of coordination compounds and the concept of primary valence and secondary valence as it relates to the transition metal ions in complex ions. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Views: 80116 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
Learning to talk about chemistry can be like learning a foreign language, but Hank is here to help with some straightforward and simple rules to help you learn to speak Chemistrian like a native. Table of Contents Determining Formulas and Names of Monatomic Ions 2:06 Finding Cation-and Anion Forming Elements on the Periodic Table 3:29 Writing Formulas and Naming Transition Metals 4:02 Naming Acids and their Anions 5:35 Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashC... Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1093612 CrashCourse
Difference between ions and atoms. How to calculating charge on an ion. View more lessons or practice this subject at https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/atomic-structure-and-properties/introduction-to-compounds/v/introduction-to-ions?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Khan Academy is a nonprofit organization with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We offer quizzes, questions, instructional videos, and articles on a range of academic subjects, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, history, economics, finance, grammar, preschool learning, and more. We provide teachers with tools and data so they can help their students develop the skills, habits, and mindsets for success in school and beyond. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 15 million people around the globe learn on Khan Academy every month. As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, we would love your help! Donate or volunteer today! Donate here: https://www.khanacademy.org/donate?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc Volunteer here: https://www.khanacademy.org/contribute?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc
Views: 220628 Khan Academy
How do you name acids? We'll learn how to look at the chemical formula for an acid and then write its name. We will focus on both acids without oxygen and also acids that contain oxygen, which are sometimes called oxoacids. In order to name an acid, you need separate the H+ from the negative ion. Then you figure out the name of the negative ion, and use rules for acid compound naming. If the negative ion ends in -ide, the acid is hydro- -ic acid. If the negative ion ends in -ate, the acid is -ic acid. If the negative ion ends in -ite, the acid is -ous acid. It's also important to note that there are some exceptions: phosphoric acid, phosphorous acid, sulfuric acid and sulfurous acid.
Views: 721119 Tyler DeWitt
http://leah4sci.com/aminoacids presents: Zwitterion and Amino Acid Charge given specific pH and pKa Values Is your MCAT just around the corner? Grab a free copy of my ebook "MCAT Exam Strategy - A 6 Week Guide To Crushing The MCAT" at http://mcatexamstrategy.com/ebook This is video 5 in the MCAT amino acids tutorial video series. Learn how to easily determine the charge of any amino acid carboxy, amine, and side chain by comparing the pH to the pKa Referenced in this video: Acid/Base series: http://leah4sci.com/mcatacidbase Henderson Hasselbalch Trick: https://youtu.be/hb8bEeUlBV4 Catch this entire video series along with my amino acid cheat sheet, tutorials and practice quiz on my website: http://leah4sci.com/aminoacids Need more help? I offer private online MCAT tutoring. Details http://leah4sci.com/mcat-tutoring/ Have questions? Leave a comment below this video or hit me up on social media: Twitter: http://twitter.com/leah4sci Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/mcatexamstrategy Google+: https://plus.google.com/+LeahFisch/
Views: 98610 Leah4sciMCAT
The isoelectric point of an amino acid is the pH at which the amino acid has a neutral charge. You will learn how to calculate the isoelectric point, and the effects of pH on the amino acid's overall charge. We will also discuss zwitterions, or the forms of amino acids that dominate at the isoelectric point. By Tracy Kovach. Created by Tracy Kim Kovach. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/chemical-processes/amino-acids-peptides-proteins-5d/v/classification-amino-acids?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/chemical-processes/amino-acids-peptides-proteins-5d/v/amino-acid-structure?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 412705 khanacademymedicine
Paul Andersen explains pH as the power of hydrogen. He explains how increases in the hydronium ion (or hydrogen ion) concentration can lower the pH and create acids. He also explains how the reverse is true. An analysis of a strong acid and strong base is also included. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All images are either Public Domain or Creative Commons Attribution Licenses: Bordercolliez. English: A Roll of Universal Indicator Paper., June 23, 2011. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Universal_indicator_paper.jpg. "File:Myoglobin.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed April 30, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Myoglobin.png. "File:WOA05 GLODAP Del pH AYool.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed April 30, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WOA05_GLODAP_del_pH_AYool.png. Slower. pH Scale Showing Common Substances, 2006. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PH_scale.png.
Views: 1117634 Bozeman Science
This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into the lattice energy of ionic compounds. Lattice energy is the amount of energy released when 1 mole of gaseous ions combined to form a solid ionic compound. This video discusses the factors that affect the lattice energy of a compound. These factors are charge and ionic radius. The lattice energy of a compound is directly proportional to the charges of the ions and inversely related to ionic radii. This video explains how to use these two factors to determine which ionic compound has the most exothermic lattice energy values. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Views: 75913 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
Naming compounds have never been so simple! With my strategy and step by step examples, you will be naming compounds like a pro in no time! This video explains every single type of ionic compound rule and covalent compound rule you will see and there are even practice problems to lock in what you just learned. 💯 WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO BE YOUR CHEMISTRY TUTOR? SIGN UP HERE: http://bit.ly/melissatutor 📗 FREE CHEMISTRY SURVIVAL GUIDE https://sellfy.com/p/NbUf/ 🙋♀️🙋♂️GOT A QUESTION? ASK ME HERE http://bit.ly/AskMelissaMaribel 👉 SHOP MY STEP-BY-STEP CHEMISTRY NOTES👈 https://sellfy.com/melissamaribel Thermochemistry: https://sellfy.com/p/9zWI/ Acids and Bases: https://sellfy.com/p/Ta1z/ Naming Compounds and Acids: https://sellfy.com/p/Cpof/ Dimensional Analysis, Significant Figures, and Density: https://sellfy.com/p/6AnT/ Gas Laws: https://sellfy.com/p/De81/ Stoichiometry: https://sellfy.com/p/NObu/ Redox Reactions: https://sellfy.com/p/rQsZ/ Molarity: https://sellfy.com/p/2A3h/ Limiting Reactants: https://sellfy.com/p/J2oT/ Lewis Structures: https://sellfy.com/p/HjLq/ Kinetics: https://sellfy.com/p/iFSr/ 🧡SHOW YOUR SUPPORT ON PATREON https://www.patreon.com/melissamaribel 👍MELISSA'S FAVORITES ON AMAZON https://www.amazon.com/shop/chemistrywithmelissamaribel --OTHER RESOURCES TO HELP YOU GET THROUGH SCHOOL-- 🙌 This was my go-to homework help when I was in school. Chegg Study is one of my favorites. https://che.gg/melissamaribelstudy 📚 I made the mistake of buying all of my textbooks, I wish I had the option of renting them. Thankfully you do, with Chegg Textbook Rentals. https://che.gg/melissamaribelrentals 💰 If you bought a textbook and don’t want the hassle of selling it, Chegg can do the work for you, with Chegg Buyback. https://che.gg/melissamaribelbuyback 📝 QUICKSTUDY REFERENCE GUIDES 📕 CHEMISTRY BREAKDOWN AND REVIEW https://amzn.to/2t50xWx 📙 CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND ANSWERS https://amzn.to/2MPjC88 📘 CHEMISTRY TERMINOLOGY https://amzn.to/2t9cv1o DISCLAIMER: Some links in the description are affiliate links, which means that if you buy from those links, I’ll receive a small commission. This helps support the channel and allows me to continue making videos like this. Thanks for the support! 💁♀️ HI I'M MELISSA MARIBEL I help students pass Chemistry. I used to struggle with this subject, so when I finally graduated with a bachelor's degree in Chemistry, I became a tutor so that you wouldn't have to struggle like I did. I know that with the right help, YOU CAN LEARN ANYTHING! 👋 FOLLOW ME Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/hellomelissam/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/hellomelissam/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/hellomelissam Practice problems with step by step answers: (https://goo.gl/NwH8oC) TIMESTAMPS 1:13 Naming Strategy 1:53 Ionic Compound Naming Rules 9:49 Covalent Compound Naming Rules Example 11:49 Practice problems ___________________________________________________________________ Music: [China Electro] China-P (Morocco No Copyright music) - https://youtu.be/uDkddvltoUk Music: The Rover - S Strong https://youtu.be/DhBCxKQPHiI ___________________________________________________________________
Views: 281829 Chemistry with Melissa Maribel
To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry Here's how to write formulas for ionic compounds that contain polyatomic ions. In order to write formulas for polyatomic ions, you have to look at a chart or table of polyatomic ions to find out what the charge of each one is. Then, you figure out how many other ions will be necessary to balance out the charges and make it neutral.
Views: 1265242 Tyler DeWitt
This chemistry video tutorial explains the 4 quantum numbers n l ml and ms and how it relates to the electron configuration of an element. It also shows you how to draw the atomic orbital diagrams and the orbital energy levels of an atom. It explains the sublevels s p d and f. This video contains plenty of notes, examples, and practice problems. Here is a list of topics: 1. How to write the ground state electron configuration of an element 2. Electron Configuration Using Noble Gas Notation 3. Electron Configuration of Atoms and Ions - Fluorine (F), Phosphorus (P), Phosphide (P-3), Iron (Fe), Fe+2, Fe+3, 4. Mass Number vs Atomic Number 5. How to determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons inside an atom or ion 6. Electron Configuration Exceptions - Cr 7. Cations vs Anions - Positively Charged vs Negatively Charged Ions 8. How to draw the orbital diagram of an atom 9. How to Draw The Orbital Energy Level Diagram of an Atom 10. How to tell if an element is paramagnetic or diamagnetic 11. Paramagnetic - Unpaired Electrons vs Diamagnetic - Paired Electrons 12. Electron Spin around Nucleus - Moving Charge Creates Magnetic Field - Tiny Bar Magnets - North & South Pole 13. How to determine the number of unpaired electrons in an element / atom 14. Aufbau Principle - Filling Electrons In Lower Energy Levels First in order of increasing energy 15. Hund's Rule - Adding Electrons to degenerate orbitals (same energy) one at a time with parallel spins 16. How to determine the number of valence electrons and core electrons in an atom using electron configuration 17. How to identify the element given electron configuration 18. How to identify which element is in the excited state vs ground state given electron configuration 19. n - principal quantum number - main energy level - boh's model of atoms 20. l - azimuthal angular momentum quantum number - sublevel or shape of atomic orbital - s p d f g h 21. ml - magnetic quantum number - describes specific orbital within sublevel 22. ms - electron spin +1/2 or -1/2 up arrow or down arrow 23. l, n-1 equation / formula 24. ml is between -l and l 25. How to identify the 4 quantum numbers n l ml and ms using electron configuration 26. Pauli Exclusion Principle - No two electrons can have the same four set of quantum numbers 27. How to determine the maximum number of electrons given quantum numbers n l ml ms 28. Max number of electrons in an energy level is 2n^2 29. Maximum number of orbitals in an energy level is n^2 30. l=0 for s, l=1 for p, l=2 for d, l=3 for f, l=4 for g, l=5 for h 31. Multiple Choice Practice Problems 32. How to determine the number of s electrons, p electrons and d electrons inside an atom using electron configuration and using the periodic table 33. How to determine which 4 set of quantum numbers are allowed and which are incorrect 34. How to identify the orbital / sublevel given n and l 35. Orbital filling diagram
Views: 149676 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
Nitrogen Compounds can act as Lewis bases as there is a lone pair of electrons available on nitrogen for donation. How basic the nitrogen compound is depends on the availability of that lone pair. Let's look at the organic compounds that contain nitrogen and their difference in basicity: Notice that amines are the strongest bases, followed by ammonia, then phenylamine, and finally amides. Let's take a closer look to understand why. 1. Amines and ammonia In general the basicity trend for amines and ammonia is as follows: tertiary amines, secondary amines, primary amines, ammonia This is due to the electron donating effect of alkyl groups which increase the electron density on nitrogen. Tertiary amines have more electron donating R groups and increase the electron density on nitrogen to a greater extent. This makes the lone pair on nitrogen more available for donation, and tertiary amines are the strongest bases. Hence the more R groups the amine has, the more basic it is. Conversely, ammonia has no electron donating R group. So lone pair on nitrogen is less available for donation and ammonia is less basic than amines. 2. Phenylamine The lone pair of nitrogen is delocalised into the pi electron system of benzene. This makes the lone pair less available for donation and hence phenylamine is less basic than ammonia. 3. Amides The lone pair on nitrogen is delocalised extensively into the acid group, between both electronegative atoms oxygen and nitrogen. This makes the lone pair unavailable for donation. Hence amides are neutral and do not use the lone pair for donation at all. Check out this video lesson to learn how to compare basicity for Amines, Phenylamines and Amides in Organic Chemistry! Topic: Nitrogen Compounds, Organic Chemistry, JC, H2, A Level Chemistry, Singapore Found this video useful? Please LIKE this video and SHARE it with your friends! Any feedback, comments or questions to clarify? Suggestions for new video lessons? Drop them in the COMMENTS Section, I would love to hear from you! You can also view this video lesson with screenshots and detailed explanation at https://chemistryguru.com.sg/how-to-compare-basicity-of-organic-compounds Do check out the following for more video lessons: Organic Chemistry Videos at https://chemistryguru.com.sg/a-level-organic-chemistry-video-lessons A Level Chemistry Videos at https://chemistryguru.com.sg/a-level-chemistry-video-lessons If you are looking for H2 Chemistry Tuition, do consider taking up my classes at Bishan. More info at https://chemistryguru.com.sg/ -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch my latest video: "Determine Limiting Reagent" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdJsGEDMPOk -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
This chemistry video tutorial focuses the difference between soluble and insoluble compounds. It contains a table or chart of the solubility rules and it provides a list of salts and substances - some of which are soluble while others are insoluble. This video contains a worksheet of examples and problems toward the end of the video including answers and solutions. Here is a list of topics: 1. Understanding The Solubility Rules Table 2. Ions that are always soluble - Na+, K+, Li+, NH4+, C2H3O2-, Cs+, Rb+, ClO4-, ClO3-, and HCO3- 3. Ions that are generally soluble - Cl-, Br-, I- (halides) - Exceptions - Pb2+, Ag+, Hg2 2+ 4. Sulfates are generally soluble except with Ba2+, Ca+2, and Sr2+ 5. The difference between soluble and insoluble compounds - aqueous vs solid phases 6. Substances that are generally insoluble - Hydroxides, carbonates, sulfides, and phosphates
Views: 106221 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
This organic chemistry video tutorial shows you how to draw resonance structures. It provides the rules that you need to know along with plenty of examples and practice problems. It shows you how to calculate the formal charge of an element in a compound and it shows you how to determine the major resonance contributor and the minor resonance structure by identifying which resonance structure is more or less stable using principles such as electronegativity, atomic and ionic size, formal charge separation, aromaticity and octet sastifactory requirements. This video lecture explains why secondary carbocations are more stable than primary carbocations and why the reverse is true in the case of carbanions. It explains this concept using principles such as the inductive effect, hyperconjugation, and the presence of electron donating groups. This video lecture contains plenty of notes and examples for you to remember whenever your drawing resonance structures.
Views: 144667 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia Understanding basics of ion movement and membrane voltage, equilibrium potential and resting potential. This video and other related images/videos (in HD) are available for instant download licensing here : https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/all-animations/cell-molecular-biology-genetics-videos ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Voice by: Ashley Fleming All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Membrane potential, or membrane voltage, refers to the DIFFERENCE of electric charges across a cell membrane. Most cells have a NEGATIVE transmembrane potential. Because membrane potential is defined RELATIVE to the exterior of the cell, the negative sign means the cell has MORE negative charges on the INSIDE. There are 2 basic rules governing the movement of ions: - they move from HIGHER to LOWER concentration, just like any other molecules; - being CHARGE-bearing particles, ions also move AWAY from LIKE charges, and TOWARD OPPOSITE charges. In the case of the cell membrane, there is a THIRD factor that controls ion movement: the PERMEABILITY of the membrane to different ions. Permeability is achieved by OPENING or CLOSING passageways for specific ions, called ION CHANNELS. Permeability can change when the cell adopts a DIFFERENT physiological state. Consider this example: 2 solutions of different concentrations of sodium chloride are separated by a membrane. If the membrane is EQUALLY permeable to BOTH sodium and chloride, both ions will diffuse from higher to lower concentration and the 2 solutions will eventually have the same concentration. Note that the electric charges remain the same on both sides and membrane potential is zero. Now let’s assume that the membrane is permeable ONLY to the positively-charged sodium ions, letting them flow down the concentration gradient, while BLOCKING the negatively-charged chloride ions from crossing to the other side. This would result in one solution becoming INCREASINGLY positive and the other INCREASINGLY negative. Since opposite charges attract and like charges repel, positive sodium ions are now under influence of TWO forces: DIFFUSION force drives them in one direction, while ELECTROSTATIC force drives them in the OPPOSITE direction. The equilibrium is reached when these 2 forces COMPLETELY counteract, at which point the NET movement of sodium is ZERO. Note that there is NOW a DIFFERENCE of electric charge across the membrane; there is ALSO a CONCENTRATION gradient of sodium. The two gradients are driving sodium in OPPOSITE directions with the EXACT SAME force. The voltage established at this point is called the EQUILIBRIUM potential for sodium. It’s the voltage required to MAINTAIN this particular concentration gradient and can be calculated as a function thereof. A typical RESTING neuron maintains UNequal distributions of different ions across the cell membrane. These gradients are used to calculate their equilibrium potentials. The positive and negative signs represent the DIRECTION of membrane potential. Because sodium gradient is directed INTO the cell, its equilibrium potential must be POSITIVE to drive sodium OUT. Potassium has the REVERSE concentration gradient, hence NEGATIVE equilibrium potential. Chloride has the same INWARD concentration direction as sodium, but because it’s a negative charge, it requires a NEGATIVE environment inside the cell to push it OUT. The resting membrane potential of a neuron is about -70mV. Notice that ONLY chloride has the equilibrium potential near this value. This means chloride is IN equilibrium in resting neurons, while sodium and potassium are NOT. This is because there is an ACTIVE transport to keep sodium and potassium OUT of equilibrium. This is carried out by the sodium-potassium PUMP which constantly brings potassium IN and pumps sodium OUT of the cell. The resulting resting potential, while costly to maintain, is essential to generation of action potentials when the cell is stimulated.
Views: 49168 Alila Medical Media
This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into the periodic trends of the ionic radius of ions. It explains how to rank in order of increasing ionic radii - the sizes of isoelectric ions - which are ions that have the same number of electrons and the same electron configuration. Anions are usually bigger than cations. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Views: 21128 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
How to calculate the formal charge on nitrogen. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/organic-structures/oxidation-reduction-review/v/formal-charge-on-oxygen?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/organic-structures/oxidation-reduction-review/v/formal-charge-on-carbon?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 59693 Khan Academy Organic Chemistry
We'll learn how to name ionic compounds that have transition metals in them. The names for transition metal compounds often have roman numerals in them, because the roman numerals indicate the charge on the transition metal. This is because transitional metal elements are able to make a variety of ions with different charge. In order to write the roman numeral for a transition metal compound, we need to work backwards, using the periodic table or a list of polyatomic ions to figure out what charge it has in that particular ionic compound.
Views: 1006957 Tyler DeWitt
This comment about the video lecture explains about ion exchange chromatography principle. It also explains the step-by-step process of ion exchange chromatography. That includes the the cation exchange chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. Ion exchange chromatography involves using positive and negative in charge ions to separate charged molecules from a mixture. In the positive this is a problem was in video. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching
Views: 180826 Shomu's Biology
This organic chemistry video tutorial explains the difference between delocalized electrons and localized electrons. It discusses which acid is stronger - ethanol or acetic acid. it provides the pKa values for these molecules and discusses the relative strength of the conjugate base as well as the inductive electron withdrawal effect of the carbonyl group. The resonance structures of the acetate ion are drawn as well as the resonance hybrid. The negative charge on the ethoxide ion is localized making it less stable but a stronger conjugate base. Other examples include cyclohexanol and phenol in this video. This video also helps you to identify the major and the minor resonance contributor,
Views: 48152 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that produces spectra (singular spectrum) of the masses of the molecules comprising a sample of material. The spectra are used to determine the elemental composition of a sample, the masses of particles and of molecules, and to elucidate the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds. Mass spectrometry works by ionizing chemical compounds to generate charged molecules or molecule fragments and measuring their mass-to-charge ratios. In a typical MS procedure, a sample, which may be solid, liquid, or gas, is ionized. The ions are separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio. The ions are detected by a mechanism capable of detecting charged particles. Signal processing results are displayed as spectra of the relative abundance of ions as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. The atoms or molecules can be identified by correlating known masses to the identified masses or through a characteristic fragmentation pattern. A mass spectrometer consists of three components: an ion source, a mass analyzer, and a detector. The ionizer converts a portion of the sample into ions. There is a wide variety of ionization techniques, depending on the phase (solid, liquid, gas) of the sample and the efficiency of various ionization mechanisms for the unknown species. An extraction system removes ions from the sample, which are then trajected through the mass analyzer and onto the detector. The differences in masses of the fragments allows the mass analyzer to sort the ions by their mass-to-charge ratio. The detector measures the value of an indicator quantity and thus provides data for calculating the abundances of each ion present. Some detectors also give spatial information, e.g. a multichannel plate. Mass spectrometry has both qualitative and quantitative uses. These include identifying unknown compounds, determining the isotopic composition of elements in a molecule, and determining the structure of a compound by observing its fragmentation. Other uses include quantifying the amount of a compound in a sample or studying the fundamentals of gas phase ion chemistry (the chemistry of ions and neutrals in a vacuum). MS is now in very common use in analytical laboratories that study physical, chemical, or biological properties of a great variety of compounds. As an analytical technique it possesses distinct advantages such as: 1. Increased sensitivity over most other analytical techniques because the analyzer, as a mass-charge filter, reduces background interference 2. Excellent specificity from characteristic fragmentation patterns to identify unknowns or confirm the presence of suspected compounds. 3. Information about molecular weight. 4. Information about the isotopic abundance of elements. 5. Temporally resolved chemical data. A few of the disadvantages of the method is that often fails to distinguish between optical and geometrical isomers and the positions of substituent in o-, m- and p- positions in an aromatic ring. Also, its scope is limited in identifying hydrocarbons that produce similar fragmented ions. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Views: 233210 Shomu's Biology
A video tutorial for how to draw Lewis Structures in five steps. The video covers the basic Lewis structures you'll see in an introductory chemistry class. Get more chemistry help at www.Breslyn.org. The five steps are: 1. Find the total valence electrons for the molecule. 2. Put the least electronegative atom in the center. Note: Hydrogen (H) always goes outside. 3. Put two electrons between atoms to form a chemical bond. 4. Complete octets on outside atoms. 5. If central atom does not have an octet, move electrons from outer atoms to form double or triple bonds. Lewis Structures are important to learn because they help us predict: - the shape of a molecule. - how the molecule might react with other molecules. - the physical properties of the molecule (like boiling point, surface tension, etc.). --- Drawing done in Adobe Illustrator and captured with Camtasia Studio on a Microsoft Surface Pro 3. Audio recording using a Yeti Blue microphone.
Views: 1833054 Wayne Breslyn
This organic chemistry video tutorial shows you how to tell if a compound is aromatic, antiaromatic or nonaromatic by using huckel's rule / number of 4n+2 pi electrons, and features of the compound such as whether or not if it's cyclic, conjugated, sp2 hybridized and planar. Organic Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5vjCqnVb6s&index=1&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BU3gxU8RwqkEET2ilZ80Znj Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ Examples and practice problems in this video include cyclobutadiene, benzene, cyclooctatetraene, pentalene, 1,3,5-hexatriene, naphthalene, anthracene, tropylium ion, cyclopropenyl cation radical & anion, cyclopentadienyl radical cation & anion, cyclooctarienyl dianion, cyclohexatrienyl cation, radical, & anion, pyrrole, furan, pyran, isoxazole, tub conformation of cyclooctatetraene, heterocycles such as thiophene, 1,3-thiazole, pyrimidine, purine, pyrylium ion, & imidazole. This video also helps you to see which nitrogen atom is basic and which is not. It clearly helps you to see the difference in aromaticity vs antiaromaticity.
Views: 307400 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
Naming cations, anions, and simple ionic compounds such as potassium chloride. View more lessons or practice this subject at https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/atomic-structure-and-properties/introduction-to-compounds/v/naming-ions-and-ionic-compounds?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Khan Academy is a nonprofit organization with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We offer quizzes, questions, instructional videos, and articles on a range of academic subjects, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, history, economics, finance, grammar, preschool learning, and more. We provide teachers with tools and data so they can help their students develop the skills, habits, and mindsets for success in school and beyond. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 15 million people around the globe learn on Khan Academy every month. As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, we would love your help! Donate or volunteer today! Donate here: https://www.khanacademy.org/donate?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc Volunteer here: https://www.khanacademy.org/contribute?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc
Views: 393042 Khan Academy
Finding ionic charges for elements on the Periodic Table is a fundamental skill in chemistry. There are two primary methods to help you remember the charges. The first method is to consider the ionic charges for elements in their groups. As you go down a group on the Periodic Table elements tend to have the same ionic charge. For example, elements in Groups One all have a charge of +1. As is always the case with chemistry there are a number of exceptions. The second Periodic Table presented in the video shows these exceptions. Overall the trend is the same as in the first method but more detailed. This video doesn’t explain why elements have specific ionic charges but it does give you the information you need to quickly and effectively understand how to find the ionic charge of an element. --- Drawing done in Adobe Illustrator and captured with Camtasia Studio on a Microsoft Surface Pro 3. Audio recording using a Yeti Blue microphone.
Views: 231618 Wayne Breslyn
Ninja Nerds, Join us during this lecture where we have a discussion on the acidity & basicity of salts, along with some practice problems! ***PLEASE SUPPORT US*** PATREON | https://www.patreon.com/NinjaNerdScience ***EVERY DOLLAR HELPS US GROW & IMPROVE OUR QUALITY*** FACEBOOK | https://www.facebook.com/NinjaNerdScience INSTAGRAM | https://www.instagram.com/ninjanerdscience/ ✎ For general inquiries email us at: [email protected]
Views: 1124 Ninja Nerd Science