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How to decide the Relative Strength of Acids and Bases ? - Part 1
 
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The ability to decide the relative strength of acids and bases is very important in Organic Chemistry. It helps us to understand what groups will get attacked by what other groups and whether the reaction is moving in the right direction. 'Strong and reactive tends to become Stable and Weak'. In this series of videos, we look at all the factors that we can use to judge the order of acid or base strengths of a given set of compounds. We can then arrange them in either increasing or decreasing order of acidity / basicity. The first important factor that helps us decide the relative strength of bases is the atom carrying the negative charge. When you move from left to right in a period, the negative charge becomes more stable and hence less reactive. Thus, basicity decreases. Similarly, down the group, negative charge is stabilized. So, when you move from top to bottom in a group, again basic strength decreases.
Views: 50309 Busting JEE Main
Using Charge to Rank Acid Base Strength in Organic Chemistry
 
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http://leah4sci.com/acidbase presents: CARIO C = Charge to Rank Acidity and Basicity in Organic Chemistry Need help with orgo? Download my free guide '10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry' HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ Video 3 in my Orgo acid base series shows you how to rank acids and bases by comparing the charges of acids, or charges of conjugate base. Catch the entire series, along with my acid/base cheat sheet and practice prolem set on my website: http://leah4sci.com/acidbase For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://studyhall.leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/
Views: 49417 Leah4sci
nucleophilicity and basicity
 
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Correction: I forgot to draw a negative charge next to the first iodide anion. More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Iit8p6xzfr8
Acid strength, anion size, and bond energy | Chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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How anion size and bond dissociation energies affect acid strength. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acids-and-bases-topic/copy-of-acid-base-equilibria/v/conjugate-acids-and-bases?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acids-and-bases-topic/acids-and-bases/v/strong-acids-and-strong-bases?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyEot66LrwWFEMONvrIBh3A?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Factors that affect acidity (1) - Charge
 
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For more, go to http://masterorganicchemistry.com
Atom Size and Electronegativity to Rank Acid Strength in Organic Chemistry
 
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http://leah4sci.com/acidbase presents: CARIO A = Atom (size and electronegativity) to Rank Acidity and Basicity in Organic Chemistry Need help with orgo? Download my free guide '10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry' HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ Video 4 in my Orgo acid base series shows you how to rank acids and bases by comparing the electronegativity of atoms in the same period, or by comparing size of atoms in the same group on the periodic table. Catch the entire series, along with my acid/base cheat sheet and practice prolem set on my website: http://leah4sci.com/acidbase For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://studyhall.leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/
Views: 59746 Leah4sci
How to Identify the Charge of an Ion : Chemistry Lessons
 
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Subscribe Now: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=ehoweducation Watch More: http://www.youtube.com/ehoweducation You can identify the charge of an ion by carefully paying attention to a few key traits. Find out how to identify the charge of an ion with help from an experienced chemistry professional in this free video clip. Expert: Robin Higgins Filmmaker: bjorn wilde Series Description: Chemistry plays a very important role in all of our lives each and every day. Get tips on chemistry with help from an experienced chemistry professional in this free video series.
Views: 208983 eHowEducation
Cations and Anions Explained
 
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This video explains the difference between cations and anions.
How to Memorize The Polyatomic Ions, Formulas, Charges, Naming, Chemistry
 
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This chemistry video tutorial explains how to memorize the polyatomic ions. It provides the name of the common polyatomic ions, the charges and their respective formulas as well. Common polyatomic ions include sulfate, nitrate, acetate, ammonium, hydroxide, sulfite, cyanide, phosphate, disulfide, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfate, bisulfite, chromate, dichromate, pyrophosphate, permanganate, thiosulfate, peroxide, superoxide, oxalate, borate, iodate, perchlorate, hypochlorite, bromite, and nitrite just to name a few. This video contains plenty of examples and practice problems including a quiz that tests you to see if you remember the common polyatomic ions.
Zwitterion and Amino Acid Charge Given pH and pKa
 
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http://leah4sci.com/aminoacids presents: Zwitterion and Amino Acid Charge given specific pH and pKa Values Is your MCAT just around the corner? Grab a free copy of my ebook "MCAT Exam Strategy - A 6 Week Guide To Crushing The MCAT" at http://mcatexamstrategy.com/ebook This is video 5 in the MCAT amino acids tutorial video series. Learn how to easily determine the charge of any amino acid carboxy, amine, and side chain by comparing the pH to the pKa Referenced in this video: Acid/Base series: http://leah4sci.com/mcatacidbase Henderson Hasselbalch Trick: https://youtu.be/hb8bEeUlBV4 Catch this entire video series along with my amino acid cheat sheet, tutorials and practice quiz on my website: http://leah4sci.com/aminoacids Need more help? I offer private online MCAT tutoring. Details http://leah4sci.com/mcat-tutoring/ Have questions? Leave a comment below this video or hit me up on social media: Twitter: http://twitter.com/leah4sci Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/mcatexamstrategy Google+: https://plus.google.com/+LeahFisch/
Views: 85909 Leah4sciMCAT
Delocalized vs Localized Electrons, pKa, Acidity, Conjugate Base, Resonance Hybrid and Contributors
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial explains the difference between delocalized electrons and localized electrons. It discusses which acid is stronger - ethanol or acetic acid. it provides the pKa values for these molecules and discusses the relative strength of the conjugate base as well as the inductive electron withdrawal effect of the carbonyl group. The resonance structures of the acetate ion are drawn as well as the resonance hybrid. The negative charge on the ethoxide ion is localized making it less stable but a stronger conjugate base. Other examples include cyclohexanol and phenol in this video. This video also helps you to identify the major and the minor resonance contributor,
Charge of an amino acid
 
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How do we calculate the charge of an amino acid at a given pH? What happens when pH = pKa?
Views: 31065 Dr. Chubits
Naming Acids Introduction
 
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How do you name acids? We'll learn how to look at the chemical formula for an acid and then write its name. We will focus on both acids without oxygen and also acids that contain oxygen, which are sometimes called oxoacids. In order to name an acid, you need separate the H+ from the negative ion. Then you figure out the name of the negative ion, and use rules for acid compound naming. If the negative ion ends in -ide, the acid is hydro- -ic acid. If the negative ion ends in -ate, the acid is -ic acid. If the negative ion ends in -ite, the acid is -ous acid. It's also important to note that there are some exceptions: phosphoric acid, phosphorous acid, sulfuric acid and sulfurous acid.
Views: 660001 Tyler DeWitt
Which molecule is more basic?  Organic Chemistry Part 1
 
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Which molecule is more basic?
Views: 4564 Anything Science
Writing Ionic Formulas: Introduction
 
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Here's how to write formulas for binary ionic compounds. We'll see how you have to balance the charges of the two ions so they cancel each other out.
Views: 1877172 Tyler DeWitt
Soluble and Insoluble Compounds Chart - Solubility Rules Table - List of Salts & Substances
 
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This chemistry video tutorial focuses the difference between soluble and insoluble compounds. It contains a table or chart of the solubility rules and it provides a list of salts and substances - some of which are soluble while others are insoluble. This video contains a worksheet of examples and problems toward the end of the video including answers and solutions. Here is a list of topics: 1. Understanding The Solubility Rules Table 2. Ions that are always soluble - Na+, K+, Li+, NH4+, C2H3O2-, Cs+, Rb+, ClO4-, ClO3-, and HCO3- 3. Ions that are generally soluble - Cl-, Br-, I- (halides) - Exceptions - Pb2+, Ag+, Hg2 2+ 4. Sulfates are generally soluble except with Ba2+, Ca+2, and Sr2+ 5. The difference between soluble and insoluble compounds - aqueous vs solid phases 6. Substances that are generally insoluble - Hydroxides, carbonates, sulfides, and phosphates
Writing Formulas with Polyatomic Ions
 
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To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry Here's how to write formulas for ionic compounds that contain polyatomic ions. In order to write formulas for polyatomic ions, you have to look at a chart or table of polyatomic ions to find out what the charge of each one is. Then, you figure out how many other ions will be necessary to balance out the charges and make it neutral.
Views: 1138865 Tyler DeWitt
What's an Ion?
 
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To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry Confused about ions? We'll learn the difference between an atom and an ion. Ions are formed because of a net charge on an atom, because the number of protons and electrons do not balance. This means that the atom is no longer electrically neutral, but is a cation or an anion. We also talk about polyatomic ions.
Views: 669215 Tyler DeWitt
Ionization Energy - Basic Introduction
 
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This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into Ionization Energy. It discusses the periodic trends and exceptions as well as providing plenty of examples and practice problems. The first ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion. The second ionization energy is associated with the removal of the second electron. Ionization energy increases with effective nuclear charge but decreases with distance, shielding and electron repulsions. Paired electrons typically have lower ionization energies that unpaired electrons. This explains how to determine which element and ion has the greater first ionization energy. It covers cations and anions and how to rank elements in order of increasing ionization energy. In addition, it discusses how to identify the element given the ionization energies of that element using valence electrons and core electrons. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Organic Chemistry Resonance Structures - Rules, Practice Examples, Formal Charge, Drawing Compounds
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial shows you how to draw resonance structures. It provides the rules that you need to know along with plenty of examples and practice problems. It shows you how to calculate the formal charge of an element in a compound and it shows you how to determine the major resonance contributor and the minor resonance structure by identifying which resonance structure is more or less stable using principles such as electronegativity, atomic and ionic size, formal charge separation, aromaticity and octet sastifactory requirements. This video lecture explains why secondary carbocations are more stable than primary carbocations and why the reverse is true in the case of carbanions. It explains this concept using principles such as the inductive effect, hyperconjugation, and the presence of electron donating groups. This video lecture contains plenty of notes and examples for you to remember whenever your drawing resonance structures.
Electron Configuration of Ions - Sodium (Na), Bromine (Br), and Cobalt (Co)
 
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This video shows you how to write the electron configuration of elements such as Sodium (Na), Bromine (Br) and Cobalt (Co). It also shows you how to write the electron configuration of anions and cations that have charges such as sodium (Na+), bromide (Br-), and transition metal ion cobalt (Co+3).
Resonance with (+) Charges Made Easy! - Organic Chemistry
 
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Take a glimpse into our minds and see how we think about Resonance when you have a positive charge! Here's a bonus video since the last video is 2 years late. lol (Part 1) Resonance with a Negative Charge: https://youtu.be/WLJqi0F8w08 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ●●● A HUGE special thanks to all my Patrons on Patreon for helping support this channel and keeping all these videos free! Special shout outs to: 1). Karen Hung (Staten Island, NY - Boston University Class of 2014 - Alum) 2). Professor Chip Celenza (Boston, MA - Boston University - Biology / Genetics Professor) 3). Safiya Nur (Silver Springs, MD - Former Montgomery College/UMaryland College Park Student | Current Orgo Made Easy Tutor!) ●●● Interested in joining them and helping support these videos? Check out ------------}(https://www.Patreon.com/OrgoMadeEasy) you can help by pitching in as little as 1$ a month! Thank you again even just for watching! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ● See Leah in this video too! 7 Must Know Resources for Organic Chemistry! (Welcome Part 2) - (https://youtu.be/1QkGxQCI1es) ● Problem of The Day (POTD) Series' Playlist - (https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLP0TLbeMObSwFMB2RgqfszvQMkT0sMWyd) ● Organic Chemistry I Playlist - http://goo.gl/nYzkkA ● Organic Chemistry II Playlist - http://goo.gl/vt36TB goo.gl/W3OYgW ● Physics Made Easy Playlist - http://goo.gl/W3OYgW ● Concepts covered/related: Reduction of Alkynes + H2 aka Hydrogenation / Lindlar | Halohydrin Formation w/ Cl2 + H20 | Epoxidation from Halohydrin | | Grignard Opening of Epoxide | Acidification after Grignard | Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols to Ketones | Wittig Reaction w/ E and Z Alkene Products| Phosphonium Ylide | Leaving Group | Nucleophiles ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ● We Are Orgo Made Easy! (Welcome Part 1) - (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5b0ugnM3Uw) ● 7 Must Know Resources for Organic Chemistry! (Welcome Part 2) - (https://youtu.be/1QkGxQCI1es) http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/extra-resources/ ● Orgo Made Easy Instagram | Problems of The Day! - https://youtu.be/cnIW9EOEIBI ● Become a Patron + Free Private Tutoring Lottery! http://www.Patreon.com/OrgoMadeEasy (In-Person or Skype!) ● Private Tutoring Information: I offer In-Person Private Tutoring in Boston and NYC, and if you live elsewhere on this awesome planet I offer online SKYPE tutoring that is accompanied with a whiteboard program, videos, images, and more! For more info check here: http://orgomadeeasy.org/private-tutoring/ and contact me via my "Orgo Made Easy" Facebook page or email: [email protected] Make sure you share this with your friends if you found it helpful, and I would love it if you leave some comments to let me know if I'm on the right track ;). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subscribe to get updated when I make new videos! https://www.youtube.com/user/OrgoMadeEasy/about?sub_confirmation=1 Connect with me on Facebook/Instagram/Twitter! Facebook-------------------------------https://Facebook.com/OrgoMadeEasy Instagram-------------------------------http://Instagram.com/OrgoMadeEasy Instagram-------------------------------http://Instagram.com/FrankMWong Official Website-----------------------http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/ Help Support Me Here--------------http://www.Patreon.com/OrgoMadeEasy Private Tutoring-----------------------http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/private-tutoring/ Tweet Tweet---------------------------https://Twitter.com/OrgoMadeEasy
Views: 3456 Frank Wong
Writing Ionic Formulas - Basic Introduction
 
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This chemistry video tutorial provides an introduction to writing the formula of an ionic compound that contains transition metals with roman numerals and polyatomic ions. This video contains plenty of examples and practice problems that you can help you with your next worksheet assignment. Here is a list of topics: 1. Writing Formulas For Ionic Compounds - Same Charged Ions 2. Monoatomic vs Polyatomic Ions List 3. Charges of Common Monoatomic Ions Based On Group Number In the Periodic Table of Elements 4. Transition Metals and Roman Numeral System List of Examples and Chemical Formulas: Sodium Chloride, Calcium Sulfide, Aluminum Nitride, Lithium Oxide, Gallium Bromide, Magnesium Phosphite, Potassium Sulfate, Strontium Phosphate, Barium Nitrate, Iron (II) Sulfide, Copper (II) Nitrite, Copper (I) Phosphite, Vanadium (V) Dichromate, and Leav (IV) Oxide.
Huge Misconception: Protons, Electrons, Atoms, and Ions
 
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Here's one of the most common misconceptions in Chemistry. Many people think that it an atom or group of atoms, the number of protons and the number of electrons always has to be the same. This isn't true! There are many cases where the number of protons and electrons are different. This is what causes electrical charge, and it creates ions, like anions and cations. Where does this misconception come from? It may come from the fact that in electrically neutral atoms, the number of protons and neutrons has to be the same. And often, we assume that atoms are neutral, even when they're not.
Views: 46876 Tyler DeWitt
Elements, Atoms, Molecules, Ions, Ionic and Molecular Compounds, Cations vs Anions, Chemistry
 
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This chemistry video tutorial explains the difference between elements, atoms, molecules, and ions. It also explains how to distinguish ionic and molecular compounds also known as covalent compounds. Atoms are electrically neutral and contain equal number of protons and electrons. Ions have a net charge and contain a different number of protons and electrons. Positively charged ions are known as cations and negatively charged ions are known as anions. Atoms and Ions have the same number of neutrons. A molecule is particle consisting of multiple atoms. Pure elements are substances composed of one type of atom where as a compound is made up of different types of atoms. Ionic compounds consist of metals and nonmetals and contain ions with charges. Covalent compounds or molecular compounds usually consist of nonmetals.
Introduction to ions | Atoms, compounds, and ions | Chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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Difference between ions and atoms. How to calculating charge on an ion. View more lessons or practice this subject at https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/atomic-structure-and-properties/introduction-to-compounds/v/introduction-to-ions?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Khan Academy is a nonprofit organization with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We offer quizzes, questions, instructional videos, and articles on a range of academic subjects, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, history, economics, finance, grammar, preschool learning, and more. We provide teachers with tools and data so they can help their students develop the skills, habits, and mindsets for success in school and beyond. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 15 million people around the globe learn on Khan Academy every month. As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, we would love your help! Donate or volunteer today! Donate here: https://www.khanacademy.org/donate?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc Volunteer here: https://www.khanacademy.org/contribute?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc
Views: 214573 Khan Academy
Organic Chemistry - Ranking Acidity
 
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Organic Chemistry as a Second Language, David Klein
Views: 16282 Brian Schendt
Isoelectric point and zwitterions | Chemical processes | MCAT | Khan Academy
 
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The isoelectric point of an amino acid is the pH at which the amino acid has a neutral charge. You will learn how to calculate the isoelectric point, and the effects of pH on the amino acid's overall charge. We will also discuss zwitterions, or the forms of amino acids that dominate at the isoelectric point. By Tracy Kovach. Created by Tracy Kim Kovach. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/chemical-processes/amino-acids-peptides-proteins-5d/v/classification-amino-acids?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/chemical-processes/amino-acids-peptides-proteins-5d/v/amino-acid-structure?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 393771 khanacademymedicine
Intermolecular Forces - Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole, Ion-Dipole, London Dispersion Interactions
 
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This chemistry video tutorial focuses on intermolecular forces such hydrogen bonding, ion-ion interactions, dipole dipole, ion dipole, london dispersion forces and van deer waal forces. It contains plenty of examples and practice problems to help you understand the most important concepts related to this material. General Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BV-uX6wXQgyqZXvRd0tUUV0&index=3 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ Here is a list of topics: 1. Ion - Ion dipole interactions of KF and CaO 2. Electrostatic Force and Lattice Energy- The effect of charge and ionic radii or size 3. How To Determine Which Ionic Compound has a Higher Melting Point - NaF vs KCl 4. Ion-Dipole Interactions - NaCl and H2O 5. Definition of a Dipole - Polar Molecules & Charge Separation 6. Dipole-Dipole Interactions of Polar Molecules - Partial Charge Electrostatic Attractions of CO 7. Hydrogen Bonding between Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine 8. Intermolecular Forces vs Intramolecular Forces 9. Hydrogen Bonding vs Polar & Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 10. London Dispersion Forces & Van Der Waals Forces 11. Permanent Dipoles and Temporary Induced Dipoles - Distribution of electrons in electron cloud 12. Difference Between Atoms and Ions - Cations vs Anions - Number of Electrons and Protons 13. The relationship between Polarizability and Dispersion Forces 14. How To Determine the Strongest Intermolecular Forces In Compounds Such as MgO, KCl, H2O, CH4, CO2, SO2, HF, CH3OH, LiCl, CH2O, CO, and I2 15. The relationship between Boiling Point and Vapor Pressure 16. Straight Chained vs Branched Alkanes - Boiling Point and Intermolecular Forces - Surface Area 17. Ranking Boiling Point In Order of Increasing Strength for I2, Br2, F2, and Cl2 18. Polar and Nonpolar Organic Compounds - Polarity and Water Solubility 19. Ranking Boiling In Decreasing Order For HF, HCl, HBr, and HI 20. The effect of Molar Mass and Number of electrons on the Overall Intermolecular Force / LDF
Acids, Bases, and pH
 
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Paul Andersen explains pH as the power of hydrogen. He explains how increases in the hydronium ion (or hydrogen ion) concentration can lower the pH and create acids. He also explains how the reverse is true. An analysis of a strong acid and strong base is also included. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All images are either Public Domain or Creative Commons Attribution Licenses: Bordercolliez. English: A Roll of Universal Indicator Paper., June 23, 2011. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Universal_indicator_paper.jpg. "File:Myoglobin.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed April 30, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Myoglobin.png. "File:WOA05 GLODAP Del pH AYool.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed April 30, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WOA05_GLODAP_del_pH_AYool.png. Slower. pH Scale Showing Common Substances, 2006. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PH_scale.png.
Views: 1046567 Bozeman Science
How To Speak Chemistrian: Crash Course Chemistry #11
 
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Learning to talk about chemistry can be like learning a foreign language, but Hank is here to help with some straightforward and simple rules to help you learn to speak Chemistrian like a native. Table of Contents Determining Formulas and Names of Monatomic Ions 2:06 Finding Cation-and Anion Forming Elements on the Periodic Table 3:29 Writing Formulas and Naming Transition Metals 4:02 Naming Acids and their Anions 5:35 Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashC... Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1031235 CrashCourse
Aromatic, Antiaromatic, or Nonaromatic, Huckel's Rule, 4n+2, Heterocycles, Aromaticity
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial shows you how to tell if a compound is aromatic, antiaromatic or nonaromatic by using huckel's rule / number of 4n+2 pi electrons, and features of the compound such as whether or not if it's cyclic, conjugated, sp2 hybridized and planar. Organic Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5vjCqnVb6s&index=1&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BU3gxU8RwqkEET2ilZ80Znj Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ Examples and practice problems in this video include cyclobutadiene, benzene, cyclooctatetraene, pentalene, 1,3,5-hexatriene, naphthalene, anthracene, tropylium ion, cyclopropenyl cation radical & anion, cyclopentadienyl radical cation & anion, cyclooctarienyl dianion, cyclohexatrienyl cation, radical, & anion, pyrrole, furan, pyran, isoxazole, tub conformation of cyclooctatetraene, heterocycles such as thiophene, 1,3-thiazole, pyrimidine, purine, pyrylium ion, & imidazole. This video also helps you to see which nitrogen atom is basic and which is not. It clearly helps you to see the difference in aromaticity vs antiaromaticity.
Resonance Structures/Assigning Formal Charge
 
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Resonance is pretty weird. Let Professor Dave explain it to you. He will discuss the resonance structures for the carbonate and nitrate ions, and also provide the simplest possible explanation for how assign formal charges to atoms within a molecule. Learn Organic Chemistry the easy way with Professor Dave! Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://twitter.com/DaveExplains http://instagram.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
Views: 106580 Professor Dave Explains
Practice Problem: Acidity of Carboxylic Acids
 
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Let's rank these carboxylic acids by acidity! Do you know about the various ways these carboxylate anions can be stabilized? Check it out. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://professordaveexplains.com http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExpl... http://twitter.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
Ionic Radius vs Atomic Radius Periodic Trend
 
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This chemistry video tutorial focuses on periodic trends such as ionic radius and atomic radius. It provides plenty of examples and explains the fundamental concepts of why some ions are smaller than atoms while others are larger. Here is a list of topics 1. Atomic Radii decreases left to right 2. Effective Nuclear Charge, Atomic Number, and Number of Protons 3. Atomic Radius Increases from top to bottom in the periodic table due to additional energy levels 4. Neutral vs Positively Charged Ion / Cation – Number of Shells or Energy Levels 5. Neutral Parent Atom vs Negatively Charged Ion / Anion – Electron Repulsion & Electron Cloud Expansion 6. General Ionic Radii Trend – Cations are smaller than Anions
Resonance Effect on Acidity
 
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This video discusses the resonance effect on the acidity of organic compounds. It uses the pka to compare the relative acidity of two compounds. It explains why phenol is more acidic than cyclohexanol. It also explains why acetic acid is more acidic than ethanol and why methyl sulfonic acid is more acidic than methane thiol. It also compares the acidity of propanal with propane. The main reason why one acid is more acidic than the other is due to resonance stabilization of conjugate base.
Stabilization of a conjugate base: resonance | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy
 
07:09
How resonance affects the stability of a conjugate base. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/organic-structures/acid-base-review/v/stabilization-of-a-conjugate-base-induction-new?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/organic-structures/acid-base-review/v/acid-strength-anion-size-and-bond-energy?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
How To Calculate Oxidation Numbers - Basic Introduction
 
31:15
This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction on how to calculate oxidation numbers. It discusses how to find the oxidation states of elements such as Zn, O2, F2, and P4 and how to find the oxidation numbers of polyatomic ions such as SO4 2-, PO4 3-, NO3-, ClO4-, Hg2+2, O2-2 and so forth. Examples include transition metals found in ionic compounds such as Fe3O4, V2O5, and K2CrO4. In addition, this video explains what's behind a fractional oxidation state. For instance, the oxidation number of Fe in Fe3O4 is a fraction +8/3. This tutorial relates oxidation states to electronegativity and positive and negative partial charges. Practice problems include OF2, HCl, NaH, BH3, H2S, SO2, NH3, NO2, CH4, and CO2. This video covers all of the rules relating to oxidation numbers. For instance, Hydrogen usually has a +1 oxidation state when bounded to a nonmetal but it tends to have a -1 oxidation number when attached to a metal. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Quantum Numbers - The Easy Way!
 
01:34:06
This chemistry video tutorial explains the 4 quantum numbers n l ml and ms and how it relates to the electron configuration of an element. It also shows you how to draw the atomic orbital diagrams and the orbital energy levels of an atom. It explains the sublevels s p d and f. This video contains plenty of notes, examples, and practice problems. Here is a list of topics: 1. How to write the ground state electron configuration of an element 2. Electron Configuration Using Noble Gas Notation 3. Electron Configuration of Atoms and Ions - Fluorine (F), Phosphorus (P), Phosphide (P-3), Iron (Fe), Fe+2, Fe+3, 4. Mass Number vs Atomic Number 5. How to determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons inside an atom or ion 6. Electron Configuration Exceptions - Cr 7. Cations vs Anions - Positively Charged vs Negatively Charged Ions 8. How to draw the orbital diagram of an atom 9. How to Draw The Orbital Energy Level Diagram of an Atom 10. How to tell if an element is paramagnetic or diamagnetic 11. Paramagnetic - Unpaired Electrons vs Diamagnetic - Paired Electrons 12. Electron Spin around Nucleus - Moving Charge Creates Magnetic Field - Tiny Bar Magnets - North & South Pole 13. How to determine the number of unpaired electrons in an element / atom 14. Aufbau Principle - Filling Electrons In Lower Energy Levels First in order of increasing energy 15. Hund's Rule - Adding Electrons to degenerate orbitals (same energy) one at a time with parallel spins 16. How to determine the number of valence electrons and core electrons in an atom using electron configuration 17. How to identify the element given electron configuration 18. How to identify which element is in the excited state vs ground state given electron configuration 19. n - principal quantum number - main energy level - boh's model of atoms 20. l - azimuthal angular momentum quantum number - sublevel or shape of atomic orbital - s p d f g h 21. ml - magnetic quantum number - describes specific orbital within sublevel 22. ms - electron spin +1/2 or -1/2 up arrow or down arrow 23. l, n-1 equation / formula 24. ml is between -l and l 25. How to identify the 4 quantum numbers n l ml and ms using electron configuration 26. Pauli Exclusion Principle - No two electrons can have the same four set of quantum numbers 27. How to determine the maximum number of electrons given quantum numbers n l ml ms 28. Max number of electrons in an energy level is 2n^2 29. Maximum number of orbitals in an energy level is n^2 30. l=0 for s, l=1 for p, l=2 for d, l=3 for f, l=4 for g, l=5 for h 31. Multiple Choice Practice Problems 32. How to determine the number of s electrons, p electrons and d electrons inside an atom using electron configuration and using the periodic table 33. How to determine which 4 set of quantum numbers are allowed and which are incorrect 34. How to identify the orbital / sublevel given n and l 35. Orbital filling diagram
Ionization Energy Electron Affinity Atomic Radius Ionic Radii Electronegativity Metallic Character
 
01:10:27
This chemistry video tutorial explains the concepts of periodic trends such as first ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radius, and ionic radii, electronegativity and metallic character. It contains plenty of examples and practice problems. Here is a list of topics: 1. Periodic Trends - Atomic Size 2. Atomic Radii - Effective Nuclear Charging - Adding Protons to Increase The Charge of the Nucleus 3. Inner Core Electrons vs Outer Valence Electrons 4. Atomic Radius Increases from left to right 5. Atomic Radii Increases from top to bottom on the periodic table 6. Shielding Effect and Electron Repulsion 7. Coulomb's Law Equation / Formula - Relationship Between Electrostatic Force, Distance, and Charge - like charges repel and opposite charges attract. 8. Ionic Radii Trend - Cations vs Anions 9. Positively Charged Ions are Smaller Than Parent Neutral Atom 10. Negatively Charged Ions are Larger Than Parent Atom 11. How to calculate the number of electrons in an atom or ion 12. Principal quantum number and number of shells - atomic size 13. How to rank the elements in order of increasing atomic radii 14. how to rank isoelectronic ions in decreasing order of atomic / ionic size 15. isoelectronic species - same electron configuration 16. Metallic Character Trend - Metals vs Nonmetals 17. Electronegativity Trend - The ability of an atom to attract an electron to itself - increases toward fluorine 18. Electronegative Nonmetals vs Electropositive Metals 19. First Ionization Energy Trend - Increases left to right and bottom to top across a group 20. Ionization Energy - Energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom 21. First Ionization Energy vs Second Ionization Energy 22. Jump in Ionization Energy - Number of Valence Electrons 23. Ionization Energy Exceptions - Paired vs Unpaired Electrons in 2s and 2p orbitals 24. Electron Affinity Trend - The Energy change associated with the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom 25. Exothermic vs Endothermic Electron Affinity Processes 26. Half Filled vs Empty S and p orbitals 27.
Determining The Charge On A Metal Ion
 
06:13
This video explains how to find the charge of a transition metal ion that is part of a compound.
Views: 49229 Brad Calvin
Chemistry Lesson: Monoatomic Ions
 
16:23
https://getchemistryhelp.com/learn-chemistry-fast/ This lesson teaches how to determine the charge of monoatomic ions and how to name them. Includes both fixed charge (Type I) metal ions and variable charge (Type II) metal ions, as well as nonmetal anions.
Views: 31667 GetChemistryHelp
How to Memorize and Name Polyatomic Ions
 
07:00
In this video I will explain an easy way of memorizing polyatomic ions. For a printable list of polyatomic ions click the link below: http://millingschem.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Polytatomic-Ions-List.pdf
Views: 217169 Chem Academy
Resonance
 
11:51
Resonance in benzene and the carbonate ion More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=6XOm3Km7r30
Views: 661215 Khan Academy
Ionic Radius Trends, Basic Introduction, Periodic Table, Sizes of Isoelectric Ions, Chemistry
 
11:47
This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into the periodic trends of the ionic radius of ions. It explains how to rank in order of increasing ionic radii - the sizes of isoelectric ions - which are ions that have the same number of electrons and the same electron configuration. Anions are usually bigger than cations. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Naming Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals Introduction
 
10:10
We'll learn how to name ionic compounds that have transition metals in them. The names for transition metal compounds often have roman numerals in them, because the roman numerals indicate the charge on the transition metal. This is because transitional metal elements are able to make a variety of ions with different charge. In order to write the roman numeral for a transition metal compound, we need to work backwards, using the periodic table or a list of polyatomic ions to figure out what charge it has in that particular ionic compound.
Views: 869238 Tyler DeWitt
The Electron: Crash Course Chemistry #5
 
12:48
Hank brings us the story of the electron and describes how reality is a kind of music, discussing electron shells and orbitals, electron configurations, ionization and electron affinities, and how all these things can be understood via the periodic table. Crash Course on the internet! http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse http://TheCrashCourse.tumblr.com Table of Contents Snobby Scientists 00:43 Great Dane/Bohr Model 01:57 Electrons as Music 04:13 Electron Shells and Orbitals 04:44 Electron Configurations 05:54 Ionization and Electron Affinities 08:17 Periodic Table 10:18 Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 2179400 CrashCourse
Intro to Chemistry, Basic Concepts - Periodic Table, Elements, Metric System & Unit Conversion
 
03:01:41
This online chemistry video tutorial provides a basic overview / introduction of common concepts taught in high school regular, honors, and ap chemistry as well as college general chemistry. This video contains plenty of notes, examples, equations / formulas and practice problems. Stoichiometry Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9fSiy7-JurA Solution Stoichiometry Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ab3wfKjaWWQ Epic Music Mix: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qeljbZhx9bY&t=214s How To Receive Tutoring and Get Paid At The Same Time: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8A8JTpOWCQ Here is a list of topics: 1. Periodic Table of Elements - Groups and Periods 2. Alkali Metals - Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr - Reactivity with water 3. Alkaline Earth Metals - 2 Valence Electrons 3. Transition Metals vs Inner Transition Metals - Lanthanides & Actinides 4. Valence Electrons, Core Electrons, and Ion Charges 5. Chalcogens, Halogens, Noble Gases, Representative Elements 6. Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids - Electronegativity vs Electropositive Elements 7. Properties of Metals - Electrical Conductivity, Heat, Malleable, and Ductile 8. Allotropes of Carbon - Graphite and Diamond 9. Diatomic Molecules - H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2 10. Cations vs Anions - Positive and Negatively Charged Ions 11. Ionic Bonding vs Covalent Bonds - Polar and Nonpolar 12. Transfer vs Sharing of Electrons 13. Electrostatic Force vs Strong Nuclear Force 14. Atomic Structure and the Nucleus of the atom 15. Subatomic Particles - Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons 16. Mass Number, Atomic Number, Average Atomic Mass of Isotopes, and Relative Percent Abundance Calculation 17. Atoms, Molecules, Ionic, Covalent & Molecular Compounds 18. Pure Substances vs Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Mixtures 19. Unit Conversion - Dimensional Analysis - feet, meters, yards, miles, kilometers, inches, centimeters - Metric System Conversion Chart - pico, nano, mega, kilo, tera, giga, milli, micro, centi, deci. 20. Density Conversion Problems - Water Displacement 21. Properties of Elements Quiz 22. Noble precious metals, liquid metal, physical states of matter 23. Significant Figures - Rules - Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, Counting and Rounding 24. Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds With Transition Metals and Polyatomic Ions 25. Nomenclature For Molecular / Covalent Compounds - Prefixes - Mono, Di, Tri, Tetra, Penta, Hexa, Hepta, Octa, Nona, and Deca 26. Naming Binary Acid Compounds - Acid Nomenclature and Writing Formulas - ate, ite, ide, ic, ous, and hydro 27. Balancing Chemical Equations 28. Single Replacement Reactions - Oxidation and Reduction 29. Combination and Decomposition Reactions 30. Balancing Combustion Reactions 31. Identifying the Oxidizing and Reducing agents 32. Calculating the Oxidation state / number of an element 33. Double Replacement Reactions 34. Acid Base Neutralization Reactions and Net Ionic Equations 35. Precipitation Reactions, Spectator Ions, and Total Ionic Equation 36. Activity Series For Single Displacement Reactions 37. Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions 38. Solubility Rules for Double Replacement Reactions 39. Grams to Moles to Atoms to Molecules Stoichiometry / Conversion 40. Molar Mass Calculations - Atomic Mass and Formula Weight 41. Mass Percent of Element in a Compound Formula / Equation
pKa and pKb relationship | Acids and bases | Chemistry | Khan Academy
 
14:33
The Ka and Kb relationship and pKa and pKb relationship between conjugate acids and bases. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acids-and-bases-topic/copy-of-acid-base-equilibria/v/relationship-between-ka-and-kb?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acids-and-bases-topic/copy-of-acid-base-equilibria/v/conjugate-acids-and-bases?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyEot66LrwWFEMONvrIBh3A?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 403823 Khan Academy
Using a pKa table | Resonance and acid-base chemistry | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy
 
09:04
How to use a pKa table to determine relative acid strengths. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/organic-structures/acid-base-review/v/using-pka-values-to-predict-the-position-of-equilibrium-new?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/organic-structures/acid-base-review/v/ka-and-acid-strength?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy