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Bsides LV 2014 - Untwisting The Mersenne Twister: How I killed the PRNG - 05Aug2014
 
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05 Aug 2014 - Bsides Las Vegas 2014 Joe "moloch" - Bishop Fox Dan "AltF4" Petro - Bishop Fox http://www.bishopfox.com http://www.bishopfox.com/blog/2014/08/untwisting-mersenne-twister-killed-prng/ http://www.irongeek.com/i.php?page=videos/bsideslasvegas2014/bg04-untwisting-the-mersenne-twister-how-i-killed-the-prng-moloch Untwisting The Mersenne Twister: How I killed the PRNG Applications rely on generating random numbers to provide security, and fail catastrophically when these numbers turn out to be not so “random.” For penetration testers, however, the ability to exploit these systems has always been just out of reach. To solve this problem, we’ve created “untwister:” an attack tool for breaking insecure random number generators and recovering the initial seed. We did all the hard math, so you don't have to! Random numbers are often used in security contexts for generating unique IDs, new passwords for resets, or cryptographic nonces. However, the built-in random number generators for most languages and frameworks are insecure, leaving applications open to a series of previously theoretical attacks. Lots of papers have been written on PRNG security, but there's still almost nothing practical you can use as a pentester to actually break live systems in the wild. This talk focuses on weaponizing what used to be theoretical into our tool: untwister. Let's finally put rand() to rest. DISCLAIMER: This video is intended for pentesting training purposes only.
Views: 4220 Bishop Fox
How to Generate Pseudorandom Numbers | Infinite Series
 
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Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/donateinfi What is a the difference between a random and a pseudorandom number? And what can pseudo random numbers allow us to do that random numbers can't? Tweet at us! @pbsinfinite Facebook: facebook.com/pbsinfinite series Email us! pbsinfiniteseries [at] gmail [dot] com Previous Episode How many Cops to catch a Robber? | Infinite Series https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXvN-pF76-E Computers need to have access to random numbers. They’re used to encrypt information, deal cards in your game of virtual solitaire, simulate unknown variables -- like in weather prediction and airplane scheduling, and so much more. But How can a computer possibly produce a random number? Written and Hosted by Kelsey Houston-Edwards Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Ray Lux Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special Thanks to Alex Townsend Big thanks to Matthew O'Connor and Yana Chernobilsky who are supporting us on Patreon at the Identity level! And thanks to Nicholas Rose and Mauricio Pacheco who are supporting us at the Lemma level!
Views: 111177 PBS Infinite Series
Primality test challenge | Journey into cryptography | Computer Science | Khan Academy
 
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How can a machine tell us if a number is prime? Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/comp-number-theory/v/what-is-computer-memory-prime-adventure-part-7?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/modern-crypt/v/checkpoint-advanced-lessons?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Computer Science on Khan Academy: Learn select topics from computer science - algorithms (how we solve common problems in computer science and measure the efficiency of our solutions), cryptography (how we protect secret information), and information theory (how we encode and compress information). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Computer Science channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8uHgAVBOy5h1fDsjQghWCw?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 23479 Khan Academy Labs
The Randomness Problem: How Lava Lamps Protect the Internet
 
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Go to https://Brilliant.org/SciShow to get 20% off of an annual Premium subscription! Randomness is important for all kinds of things, from science to security, but to generate true randomness, engineers have turned to some pretty odd tricks! Hosted by: Stefan Chin Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe! ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Lazarus G, Sam Lutfi, D.A. Noe, الخليفي سلطان, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Patrick D. Ashmore, charles george, Kevin Bealer, Chris Peters ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: https://www.wired.com/story/cloudflare-lava-lamps-protect-from-hackers/ https://sploid.gizmodo.com/one-of-the-secrets-guarding-the-secure-internet-is-a-wa-1820188866 https://www.fastcompany.com/90137157/the-hardest-working-office-design-in-america-encrypts-your-data-with-lava-lamps https://www.nytimes.com/2001/06/12/science/connoisseurs-of-chaos-offer-a-valuable-product-randomness.html https://blog.cloudflare.com/why-randomness-matters/ https://www.design-reuse.com/articles/27050/true-randomness-in-cryptography.html https://www.random.org/randomness/ https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-856j-randomized-algorithms-fall-2002/lecture-notes/ https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-26300-7_3 https://www.maa.org/sites/default/files/pdf/upload_library/22/Ford/Volchan46-63.pdf https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-22r1a.pdf http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/~simardr/testu01/guideshorttestu01.pdf https://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1418/index2.html https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/papers/2008/P113.pdf https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/secauthn/tls-handshake-protocol https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2246#page-47 https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/trafficanalysistools/tat_vol3/vol3_guidelines.pdf https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/aeronautics-and-astronautics/16-36-communication-systems-engineering-spring-2009/lecture-notes/MIT16_36s09_lec21_22.pdf https://telescoper.wordpress.com/2009/04/04/points-and-poisson-davril/ https://auto.howstuffworks.com/remote-entry2.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20070315010555/https://cigital.com/papers/download/developer_gambling.php Images: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Middle-square_method.svg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdW6nTNWbkc https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sun-crypto-accelerator-1000.jpg
Views: 399996 SciShow
The Chemistry of Primes, Melanie Wood
 
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We are familiar with the prime numbers as those integers which cannot be factored into smaller integers, but if we consider systems of numbers larger than the integers, the primes may indeed factor in those larger systems. We discuss various questions mathematicians ask about how primes may factor in larger systems, talk about both classical results and current research on the topic, and give a sense of the kind of tools needed to tackle these questions.
Views: 288 Bart Snapp
Primality Testing
 
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Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 7543 nptelhrd
Openwest 2015 - Robert Stone - "Pseudo-Random Number Generation" (91)
 
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As advanced as computers have become they are still deterministic creatures at heart. With revelations by Edward Snowden surrounding Ellipitic Curve Cryptography and the discovery that the NSA and CIA were involved in the development of one of the RSA's psuedo-random number generators questions abound as to "What do those three letter agencies actually know and what can they do with this information?" This presentation introduces the concept of Psuedo and Truly Random number generation, provides an overview of the different types of algorithms used in their generation, and then dives into a discussion about the Math and Theory behind how Prime Numbers and Elliptic Curves factor into the generation of psuedo-random numbers. An analysis of Dual_EC_DRBG is presented making it clear what the problem actually was and just how naughty the government has been! Best practices and gotchas are also outlined, a discussion regarding where randomness comes from in Perl as well as a few case studies are presented so that developers can protect themselves from common mistakes. A background in Perl is not required and you are sure to find this presentation fun, entertaining, and just a bit random! Friday, May 8th, 10:30am-11:15am Room SB 073 (Security)
Views: 410 Utah Open Source
International Conference in Number Theory and Physics - Mini Course - Gonek - 02
 
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International Conference in Number Theory and Physics Mini Course - Prof. Steve Gonek (University of Rochester) Class 2 A Motivated Introduction to the Riemann Zeta-Function The Riemann zeta-function is important in mathematics both because it encodes valuable information about the prime numbers and because it is the prototype for all L-functions. The purpose of this course is to present a motivated overview of the classical and modern theory of the zeta-function. We will present the main questions of the subject, explain why they are important, what we do and do not know about them, and the tools used to approach them. Some of the topics we will cover are the distribution of zeros and other values of the zeta-function, large and small values of the zeta-function, and moments of the zeta-function. The focus throughout will be on key concepts and applications. Página: http://www.impa.br/opencms/pt/eventos/store_old/evento_1504 Download dos vídeos: http://video.impa.br/index.php?page=international-conference-in-number-theory-and-physics This school and conference aims to bring together mathematicians (from number theory and algebraic geometry,…) and theoretical physicists (from Quantum Chaos, QFT and String Theory,…). The first week will be aimed at introductory minicourses and introductory lectures in several topics on Number Theory and Physics. And the second week will focus on research lectures and advanced level minicourses aimed at graduate students and researchers at all levels. The main purpose of the school and conference is to bring together leading researchers in number theory and physics, to foster further mutually beneficial interaction between Number Theory and Physics. The school will be made of a series of plenary lectures, short lectures and minicourses in different subjects on Number Theory and Physics. One of the aims of this school is to discuss the recent developments in a wide range of topics at the crossroads between Number Theory and Physics. The main topics to be covered in this conference are: - Number Theory and Random Matrices - Number Theory over Function Fields and Riemann Hypothesis for Curves - Modular Forms, Mock Modular Forms and Generalizations - String Theory, String dualities and automorphic forms - Quantum Field Theory for Mathematicians and Number Theorists - Quantum Chaos, Arithmetic Quantum Chaos and Number Theory - Noncommutative Geometry in Number Theory and Physics - Polylogarithms, Multiple Zeta Values and Pertubative Physics - Mirror Symmetry, Calabi-Yau Manifolds and Zeta Functions - Prime Numbers and recent developments - AdS/CFT and arithmetic IMPA - Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e Aplicada © http://www.impa.br | http://video.impa.br
Fiat Cryptography: Automatic Correct-by-Construction Generation of Low-Level Cryptographic Code
 
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Some of the most widely used cryptographic protocols, including TLS, depend on fast execution of modular big-number arithmetic. Cryptographic primitives are coded by an elite set of implementation experts, and most programmers are shocked to learn that performance-competitive implementations are rewritten from scratch for each new prime-number modulus and each significantly different hardware architecture. In the Fiat Cryptography project, we show for the first time that an automatic compiler can produce this modulus-specialized code, via formalized versions of the number-theoretic optimizations that had previously only been applied by hand. Through experiments for a wide range of moduli, compiled for 64-bit x86 and 32-bit ARM processors, we demonstrate typical speedups vs. an off-the-shelf big-integer library in the neighborhood of 5X, sometimes going up to 10X. As a bonus, our compiler is implemented in the Coq proof assistant and generates proofs of functional correctness. These combined benefits of rigorous correctness/security guarantees and labor-saving were enough to convince the Google Chrome team to adopt our compiler for parts of their TLS implementation in the BoringSSL library. The project is joint work with Andres Erbsen, Jade Philipoom, Jason Gross, and Robert Sloan.  See more at https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/video/fiat-cryptography-automatic-correct-by-construction-generation-of-low-level-cryptographic-code/
Views: 1162 Microsoft Research
How to get prime numbers in java
 
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THis is a really basic tutorial for getting prime numbers in java using a simple method with for loops. This will be fine for your homework since it doesn't have the "best permormance" but it'll work just fine. __________________ Thank you for watching this video, if you like it please don't forget to like it, or subscribe to my channel for more programming tutorials --- also visit my website for more content http://betacoding.net
Views: 122610 betacoding
undervolting laptop CPU i7-6700 HQ more preformance and cooling
 
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download link for NZXT cam: https://camwebapp.com/ download link for intel tuning utility: https://downloadcenter.intel.com/download/24075/Intel-Extreme-Tuning-Utility-Intel-XTU- download link for prime 95 : https://www.mersenne.org/download/ notebook spec: Asus gl702vm core i7-6700HQ GTX 1060 1TP hard drive 16gp ram
Views: 10912 tech device
SANDstorm, Math-Fun, & Asteroid Relocation
 
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Google Tech Talk July 24, 2009 ABSTRACT Presented by Rich Schroeppel. Rich Schroeppel works on SANDstorm, the Sandia entry in the NIST contest for a new cryptographic hash function. He'll also present some math fun: Post's Tag Problem, and Polyhypercubes. Then there's a proposal for moving asteroids to useful orbits, and to close, the Fish-Pond Theory for the origin of life. Bio: Rich Schroeppel has an Erdos number of 2, coauthored MIT's famous 1972 HAKMEM, and factored Mersenne numbers M137 & M149.
Views: 3266 GoogleTechTalks
Handmade Hero Day 434 - Replacing the Pseudo-random Number Generator
 
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Day 434 of coding on Handmade Hero. See http://handmadehero.org for details.
Views: 3086 Handmade Hero
History of computing hardware | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware 00:01:14 1 Early devices 00:01:23 1.1 Ancient and medieval 00:03:37 1.2 Renaissance calculating tools 00:04:55 1.3 Mechanical calculators 00:07:11 1.4 Punched-card data processing 00:09:30 1.5 Calculators 00:11:08 2 First general-purpose computing device 00:14:27 3 Analog computers 00:18:01 4 Advent of the digital computer 00:19:32 4.1 Electromechanical computers 00:22:19 4.2 Digital computation 00:24:10 4.3 Electronic data processing 00:25:56 4.4 The electronic programmable computer 00:31:11 5 Stored-program computer 00:31:54 5.1 Theory 00:33:28 5.2 Manchester Baby 00:35:29 5.3 Manchester Mark 1 00:36:45 5.4 EDSAC 00:37:48 5.5 EDVAC 00:38:39 5.6 Commercial computers 00:41:44 5.7 Microprogramming 00:42:42 6 Magnetic memory 00:43:53 7 Early digital computer characteristics 00:44:03 8 Transistor computers 00:47:30 8.1 Transistorized peripherals 00:49:20 8.2 Supercomputers 00:50:42 9 Integrated circuit 00:52:21 10 Post-1960 (integrated circuit based) 01:00:02 11 Epilogue 01:00:48 12 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9489564379116984 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations, such as the abacus, were called "calculating machines", called by proprietary names, or referred to as calculators. The machine operator was called the computer. The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device to obtain the result. Later, computers represented numbers in a continuous form, for instance distance along a scale, rotation of a shaft, or a voltage. Numbers could also be represented in the form of digits, automatically manipulated by a mechanical mechanism. Although this approach generally required more complex mechanisms, it greatly increased the precision of results. A series of breakthroughs, such as miniaturized transistor computers, and the integrated circuit, caused digital computers to largely replace analog computers. The cost of computers gradually became so low that by the 1990s, personal computers, and then, in the 2000s, mobile computers, (smartphones and tablets) became ubiquitous.
Views: 21 wikipedia tts
Erdős number
 
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The Erdős number (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɛrdøːʃ]) describes the "collaborative distance" between a person and mathematician Paul Erdős, as measured by authorship of mathematical papers. The same principle has been applied in other fields where a particular individual has collaborated with a large and broad number of peers. The American Mathematical Society provides a free online tool to determine the Erdős Number of every mathematical author listed in the Mathematical Reviews catalogue. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 312 Audiopedia
IL MIO NUOVO HOBBY
 
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Il mio hobby: ricerca di numeri primi (partecipando tramite il calcolo distribuito). My hobby: prime numbers search (using distributed computing).
Views: 89 solitagente
Sophie Germain Identity
 
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In this video I have explained the Sophie Germain's identity and have applied to to different problems related to primality testing. This identity is an important tool that can be used in many places.
Views: 886 Prime Maths
Explore Woodall Primes with Touch Integers ℤ (+ - × ÷)
 
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Woodall numbers are the result of: Wn = n * 2^n -1 Some n values in this formula results in a prime number: n= 2, 3, 6, 30, 75, ...... Wn = 7, 23, 383, 32212254719, 2833419889721787128217599..... Exploring the 3 first Woodall primes With Touch Integers ℤ (+ - × ÷) https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nummolt.touch.integers http://www.nummolt.com "Touch Integers ℤ" The fundamental theorem of arithmetic in practice: Prime numbers are the basic building blocks of numbers. Please: Subscribe the nummolt youtube channel. Nummolt apps: "Not Montessori per se, but Montessori-like"
Views: 147 nummolt
Dermot Turing: "Prof: Alan Turing Decoded" | Talks at Google
 
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Sir Dermot Turing visited Google's office in Seattle, WA to discuss his book "Prof: Alan Turing Decoded". Famous codebreaker and computer scientist Alan Turing’s legend has grown through books and films such as The Imitation Game, and it has become a challenge to discern the real man from the story. Now, Alan Turing’s nephew, Sir Dermot Turing, has taken a fresh look at the influences on Alan Turing’s life and creativity in his new biography Prof: Alan Turing Decoded. Dermot Turing was educated at Sherborne and King’s College, Cambridge. After completing his DPhil in Genetics at New College, Oxford, Dermot joined the legal profession. This is his first biography, and the first written by a family member. He is a trustee of Bletchley Park, the UK headquarters for codebreaking during WWII.
Views: 5404 Talks at Google
History of computer hardware | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware 00:01:53 1 Early devices 00:02:03 1.1 Ancient and medieval 00:05:24 1.2 Renaissance calculating tools 00:07:21 1.3 Mechanical calculators 00:10:43 1.4 Punched-card data processing 00:14:12 1.5 Calculators 00:16:39 2 First general-purpose computing device 00:21:38 3 Analog computers 00:27:02 4 Advent of the digital computer 00:29:16 4.1 Electromechanical computers 00:33:30 4.2 Digital computation 00:36:15 4.3 Electronic data processing 00:38:53 4.4 The electronic programmable computer 00:46:32 5 Stored-program computer 00:47:35 5.1 Theory 00:49:53 5.2 Manchester Baby 00:52:55 5.3 Manchester Mark 1 00:54:47 5.4 EDSAC 00:56:21 5.5 EDVAC 00:57:34 5.6 Commercial computers 01:02:14 5.7 Microprogramming 01:03:38 6 Magnetic memory 01:05:21 7 Early digital computer characteristics 01:05:33 8 Transistor computers 01:10:45 8.1 Transistorized peripherals 01:13:28 8.2 Supercomputers 01:15:30 9 Integrated circuit 01:17:55 10 Post-1960 (integrated circuit based) 01:29:33 11 Epilogue 01:30:38 12 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7650497951940247 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations, such as the abacus, were called "calculating machines", called by proprietary names, or referred to as calculators. The machine operator was called the computer. The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device to obtain the result. Later, computers represented numbers in a continuous form, for instance distance along a scale, rotation of a shaft, or a voltage. Numbers could also be represented in the form of digits, automatically manipulated by a mechanical mechanism. Although this approach generally required more complex mechanisms, it greatly increased the precision of results. A series of breakthroughs, such as miniaturized transistor computers, and the integrated circuit, caused digital computers to largely replace analog computers. The cost of computers gradually became so low that by the 1990s, personal computers, and then, in the 2000s, mobile computers, (smartphones and tablets) became ubiquitous.
Views: 17 wikipedia tts
Early computer | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:04:14
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware 00:01:17 1 Early devices 00:01:26 1.1 Ancient and medieval 00:03:46 1.2 Renaissance calculating tools 00:05:07 1.3 Mechanical calculators 00:07:30 1.4 Punched-card data processing 00:09:53 1.5 Calculators 00:11:37 2 First general-purpose computing device 00:15:05 3 Analog computers 00:18:52 4 Advent of the digital computer 00:20:28 4.1 Electromechanical computers 00:23:25 4.2 Digital computation 00:25:21 4.3 Electronic data processing 00:27:13 4.4 The electronic programmable computer 00:32:36 5 Stored-program computer 00:33:22 5.1 Theory 00:34:59 5.2 Manchester Baby 00:37:05 5.3 Manchester Mark 1 00:38:25 5.4 EDSAC 00:39:30 5.5 EDVAC 00:40:24 5.6 Commercial computers 00:43:40 5.7 Microprogramming 00:44:42 6 Magnetic memory 00:45:56 7 Early digital computer characteristics 00:46:06 8 Transistor computers 00:49:41 8.1 Transistorized peripherals 00:51:35 8.2 Supercomputers 00:53:00 9 Integrated circuit 00:54:45 10 Post-1960 (integrated circuit based) 01:02:49 11 Epilogue 01:03:37 12 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.907581745943992 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations, such as the abacus, were called "calculating machines", called by proprietary names, or referred to as calculators. The machine operator was called the computer. The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device to obtain the result. Later, computers represented numbers in a continuous form, for instance distance along a scale, rotation of a shaft, or a voltage. Numbers could also be represented in the form of digits, automatically manipulated by a mechanical mechanism. Although this approach generally required more complex mechanisms, it greatly increased the precision of results. A series of breakthroughs, such as miniaturized transistor computers, and the integrated circuit, caused digital computers to largely replace analog computers. The cost of computers gradually became so low that by the 1990s, personal computers, and then, in the 2000s, mobile computers, (smartphones and tablets) became ubiquitous.
Views: 8 wikipedia tts