This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene 00:01:33 1 Definition 00:03:16 2 Structure 00:05:58 2.1 Stability 00:06:28 2.2 Analogs 00:07:18 3 Properties 00:07:50 3.1 Electronic 00:10:20 3.2 Optical 00:13:15 3.2.1 Saturable absorption 00:14:31 3.2.2 Nonlinear Kerr effect 00:15:25 3.2.3 Quantum dots 00:15:59 3.3 Thermal 00:16:07 3.3.1 Thermal conductivity 00:20:02 3.3.2 Melting point 00:20:36 3.4 Mechanical 00:23:42 3.4.1 Fracture toughness 00:24:26 3.5 Biological 00:25:37 4 Forms and nanostructures 00:28:23 5 Production 00:33:40 6 Chemistry 00:35:43 7 Potential applications 00:39:44 8 Health and safety 00:41:05 9 History Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Graphene is an allotrope (form) of carbon consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. It is a semimetal with small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material). It is the basic structural element of many other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. It can be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the ultimate case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.Graphene has many uncommon properties. It is the strongest material ever tested, conducts heat and electricity efficiently, and is nearly transparent. Graphene shows a large and nonlinear diamagnetism, greater than that of graphite, and can be levitated by neodymium magnets. Scientists theorized about graphene for years. It had been produced unintentionally in small quantities for centuries through the use of pencils and other similar graphite applications. It was observed originally in electron microscopes in 1962, but it was studied only while supported on metal surfaces. The material was later rediscovered, isolated, and characterized in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester. Research was informed by existing theoretical descriptions of its composition, structure, and properties. This work resulted in the two winning the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene."
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